- 27篇自然语言处理（NLP: cs.CL)
- 73篇计算机视觉(CV: cs.CV)
- 56篇机器学习(ML: cs.LG)
- 9篇人工智能(AI: cs.AI)
- 4篇信息检索(IR: cs.IR)
NLP-0-标题: Camels in a Changing Climate: Enhancing LM Adaptation with Tulu 2
作者: Hamish Ivison, Yizhong Wang, Valentina Pyatkin, Nathan Lambert, Matthew Peters, Pradeep Dasigi, Joel Jang, David Wadden, Noah A. Smith, Iz Beltagy, Hannaneh Hajishirzi
备注: technical report; fixed zephyr numbers
Abstract:Since the release of TÜLU [Wang et al., 2023b], open resources for instruction tuning have developed quickly, from better base models to new finetuning techniques. We test and incorporate a number of these advances into TÜLU, resulting in TÜLU 2, a suite of improved TÜLU models for advancing the understanding and best practices of adapting pretrained language models to downstream tasks and user preferences. Concretely, we release: (1) TÜLU-V2-mix, an improved collection of high-quality instruction datasets; (2) TÜLU 2, LLAMA-2 models finetuned on the V2 mixture; (3) TÜLU 2+DPO, TÜLU 2 models trained with direct preference optimization (DPO), including the largest DPO-trained model to date (TÜLU 2+DPO 70B); (4) CODE TÜLU 2, CODE LLAMA models finetuned on our V2 mix that outperform CODE LLAMA and its instruction-tuned variant, CODE LLAMA-Instruct. Our evaluation from multiple perspectives shows that the TÜLU 2 suite achieves state-of-the-art performance among open models and matches or exceeds the performance of GPT-3.5-turbo-0301 on several benchmarks. We release all the checkpoints, data, training and evaluation code to facilitate future open efforts on adapting large language models.
NLP-1-标题: PEFT-MedAware: Large Language Model for Medical Awareness
作者: Keivalya Pandya
备注: 7 pages, 1 figure, submitted to the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Journal
Abstract:Chat models are capable of answering a wide range of questions, however, the accuracy of their responses is highly uncertain. In this research, we propose a specialized PEFT-MedAware model where we utilize parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) to enhance the Falcon-1b large language model on specialized MedQuAD data consisting of 16,407 medical QA pairs, leveraging only 0.44% of its trainable parameters to enhance computational efficiency. The paper adopts data preprocessing and PEFT to optimize model performance, complemented by a BitsAndBytesConfig for efficient transformer training. The resulting model was capable of outperforming other LLMs in medical question-answering tasks in specific domains with greater accuracy utilizing limited computational resources making it suitable for deployment in resource-constrained environments. We propose further improvements through expanded datasets, larger models, and feedback mechanisms for sustained medical relevancy. Our work highlights the efficiency gains and specialized capabilities of PEFT in medical AI, outpacing standard models in precision without extensive resource demands. The proposed model and data are released for research purposes only.
NLP-2-标题: Rethinking Attention: Exploring Shallow Feed-Forward Neural Networks as an Alternative to Attention Layers in Transformer s AAAI24
作者: Vukasin Bozic, Danilo Dordevic, Daniele Coppola, Joseph Thommes
备注: Accepted at AAAI24(this https URL)
Abstract:This work presents an analysis of the effectiveness of using standard shallow feed-forward networks to mimic the behavior of the attention mechanism in the original Transformer model, a state-of-the-art architecture for sequence-to-sequence tasks. We substitute key elements of the attention mechanism in the Transformer with simple feed-forward networks, trained using the original components via knowledge distillation. Our experiments, conducted on the IWSLT2017 dataset, reveal the capacity of these “attentionless Transformers” to rival the performance of the original architecture. Through rigorous ablation studies, and experimenting with various replacement network types and sizes, we offer insights that support the viability of our approach. This not only sheds light on the adaptability of shallow feed-forward networks in emulating attention mechanisms but also underscores their potential to streamline complex architectures for sequence-to-sequence tasks.
NLP-3-标题: A Self-enhancement Approach for Domain-specific Chatbot Training via Knowledge Mining and Digest
作者: Ruohong Zhang, Luyu Gao, Chen Zheng, Zhen Fan, Guokun Lai, Zheng Zhang, Fangzhou Ai, Yiming Yang, Hongxia Yang
备注: Work in progress
Abstract:Large Language Models (LLMs), despite their great power in language generation, often encounter challenges when dealing with intricate and knowledge-demanding queries in specific domains. This paper introduces a novel approach to enhance LLMs by effectively extracting the relevant knowledge from domain-specific textual sources, and the adaptive training of a chatbot with domain-specific inquiries. Our two-step approach starts from training a knowledge miner, namely LLMiner, which autonomously extracts Question-Answer pairs from relevant documents through a chain-of-thought reasoning process. Subsequently, we blend the mined QA pairs with a conversational dataset to fine-tune the LLM as a chatbot, thereby enriching its domain-specific expertise and conversational capabilities. We also developed a new evaluation benchmark which comprises four domain-specific text corpora and associated human-crafted QA pairs for testing. Our model shows remarkable performance improvement over generally aligned LLM and surpasses domain-adapted models directly fine-tuned on domain corpus. In particular, LLMiner achieves this with minimal human intervention, requiring only 600 seed instances, thereby providing a pathway towards self-improvement of LLMs through model-synthesized training data.
NLP-4-标题: Hashing it Out: Predicting Unhealthy Conversations on Twitter
作者: Steven Leung, Filippos Papapolyzos
备注: 7 pages, 3 figures, academic
Abstract:Personal attacks in the context of social media conversations often lead to fast-paced derailment, leading to even more harmful exchanges being made. State-of-the-art systems for the detection of such conversational derailment often make use of deep learning approaches for prediction purposes. In this paper, we show that an Attention-based BERT architecture, pre-trained on a large Twitter corpus and fine-tuned on our task, is efficient and effective in making such predictions. This model shows clear advantages in performance to the existing LSTM model we use as a baseline. Additionally, we show that this impressive performance can be attained through fine-tuning on a relatively small, novel dataset, particularly after mitigating overfitting issues through synthetic oversampling techniques. By introducing the first transformer based model for forecasting conversational events on Twitter, this work lays the foundation for a practical tool to encourage better interactions on one of the most ubiquitous social media platforms.
NLP-5-标题: Countering Misinformation via Emotional Response Generation EMNLP2023
作者: Daniel Russo, Shane Peter Kaszefski-Yaschuk, Jacopo Staiano, Marco Guerini
备注: Accepted to EMNLP 2023 main conference
Abstract:The proliferation of misinformation on social media platforms (SMPs) poses a significant danger to public health, social cohesion and ultimately democracy. Previous research has shown how social correction can be an effective way to curb misinformation, by engaging directly in a constructive dialogue with users who spread – often in good faith – misleading messages. Although professional fact-checkers are crucial to debunking viral claims, they usually do not engage in conversations on social media. Thereby, significant effort has been made to automate the use of fact-checker material in social correction; however, no previous work has tried to integrate it with the style and pragmatics that are commonly employed in social media communication. To fill this gap, we present VerMouth, the first large-scale dataset comprising roughly 12 thousand claim-response pairs (linked to debunking articles), accounting for both SMP-style and basic emotions, two factors which have a significant role in misinformation credibility and spreading. To collect this dataset we used a technique based on an author-reviewer pipeline, which efficiently combines LLMs and human annotators to obtain high-quality data. We also provide comprehensive experiments showing how models trained on our proposed dataset have significant improvements in terms of output quality and generalization capabilities.
NLP-6-标题: Detection of Offensive and Threatening Online Content in a Low Resource Language
作者: Fatima Muhammad Adam, Abubakar Yakubu Zandam, Isa Inuwa-Dutse
备注: 25 pages, 5 figures, 8 tables
Abstract:Hausa is a major Chadic language, spoken by over 100 million people in Africa. However, from a computational linguistic perspective, it is considered a low-resource language, with limited resources to support Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Online platforms often facilitate social interactions that can lead to the use of offensive and threatening language, which can go undetected due to the lack of detection systems designed for Hausa. This study aimed to address this issue by (1) conducting two user studies (n=308) to investigate cyberbullying-related issues, (2) collecting and annotating the first set of offensive and threatening datasets to support relevant downstream tasks in Hausa, (3) developing a detection system to flag offensive and threatening content, and (4) evaluating the detection system and the efficacy of the Google-based translation engine in detecting offensive and threatening terms in Hausa. We found that offensive and threatening content is quite common, particularly when discussing religion and politics. Our detection system was able to detect more than 70% of offensive and threatening content, although many of these were mistranslated by Google’s translation engine. We attribute this to the subtle relationship between offensive and threatening content and idiomatic expressions in the Hausa language. We recommend that diverse stakeholders participate in understanding local conventions and demographics in order to develop a more effective detection system. These insights are essential for implementing targeted moderation strategies to create a safe and inclusive online environment.
NLP-7-标题: Med Agent s: Large Language Models as Collaborators for Zero-shot Medical Reasoning
作者: Xiangru Tang, Anni Zou, Zhuosheng Zhang, Yilun Zhao, Xingyao Zhang, Arman Cohan, Mark Gerstein
Abstract:Large Language Models (LLMs), despite their remarkable progress across various general domains, encounter significant barriers in medicine and healthcare. This field faces unique challenges such as domain-specific terminologies and the reasoning over specialized knowledge. To address these obstinate issues, we propose a novel Multi-disciplinary Collaboration (MC) framework for the medical domain that leverages role-playing LLM-based agents who participate in a collaborative multi-round discussion, thereby enhancing LLM proficiency and reasoning capabilities. This training-free and interpretable framework encompasses five critical steps: gathering domain experts, proposing individual analyses, summarising these analyses into a report, iterating over discussions until a consensus is reached, and ultimately making a decision. Our work particularly focuses on the zero-shot scenario, our results on nine data sets (MedQA, MedMCQA, PubMedQA, and six subtasks from MMLU) establish that our proposed MC framework excels at mining and harnessing the medical expertise in LLMs, as well as extending its reasoning abilities. Based on these outcomes, we further conduct a human evaluation to pinpoint and categorize common errors within our method, as well as ablation studies aimed at understanding the impact of various factors on overall performance. Our code can be found at \urlthis https URL.
NLP-8-标题: When a Language Question Is at Stake. A Revisited Approach to Label Sensitive Content KR
作者: Stetsenko Daria
备注: Ukrainian language, pseudo-labelling, dataset, offensive-language
Abstract:Many under-resourced languages require high-quality datasets for specific tasks such as offensive language detection, disinformation, or misinformation identification. However, the intricacies of the content may have a detrimental effect on the annotators. The article aims to revisit an approach of pseudo-labeling sensitive data on the example of Ukrainian tweets covering the Russian-Ukrainian war. Nowadays, this acute topic is in the spotlight of various language manipulations that cause numerous disinformation and profanity on social media platforms. The conducted experiment highlights three main stages of data annotation and underlines the main obstacles during machine annotation. Ultimately, we provide a fundamental statistical analysis of the obtained data, evaluation of models used for pseudo-labelling, and set further guidelines on how the scientists can leverage the corpus to execute more advanced research and extend the existing data samples without annotators’ engagement.
NLP-9-标题: CNL2ASP: converting controlled natural language sentences into ASP
作者: Simone Caruso, Carmine Dodaro, Marco Maratea, Marco Mochi, Francesco Riccio
备注: Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)
Abstract:Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a popular declarative programming language for solving hard combinatorial problems. Although ASP has gained widespread acceptance in academic and industrial contexts, there are certain user groups who may find it more advantageous to employ a higher-level language that closely resembles natural language when specifying ASP programs. In this paper, we propose a novel tool, called CNL2ASP, for translating English sentences expressed in a controlled natural language (CNL) form into ASP. In particular, we first provide a definition of the type of sentences allowed by our CNL and their translation as ASP rules, and then exemplify the usage of the CNL for the specification of both synthetic and real-world combinatorial problems. Finally, we report the results of an experimental analysis conducted on the real-world problems to compare the performance of automatically generated encodings with the ones written by ASP practitioners, showing that our tool can obtain satisfactory performance on these benchmarks. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).
NLP-10-标题: Sinhala-English Word Embedding Alignment: Introducing Dataset s and Benchmark for a Low Resource Language
作者: Kasun Wickramasinghe, Nisansa de Silva
Abstract:Since their inception, embeddings have become a primary ingredient in many flavours of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks supplanting earlier types of representation. Even though multilingual embeddings have been used for the increasing number of multilingual tasks, due to the scarcity of parallel training data, low-resource languages such as Sinhala, tend to focus more on monolingual embeddings. Then when it comes to the aforementioned multi-lingual tasks, it is challenging to utilize these monolingual embeddings given that even if the embedding spaces have a similar geometric arrangement due to an identical training process, the embeddings of the languages considered are not aligned. This is solved by the embedding alignment task. Even in this, high-resource language pairs are in the limelight while low-resource languages such as Sinhala which is in dire need of help seem to have fallen by the wayside. In this paper, we try to align Sinhala and English word embedding spaces based on available alignment techniques and introduce a benchmark for Sinhala language embedding alignment. In addition to that, to facilitate the supervised alignment, as an intermediate task, we also introduce Sinhala-English alignment datasets. These datasets serve as our anchor datasets for supervised word embedding alignment. Even though we do not obtain results comparable to the high-resource languages such as French, German, or Chinese, we believe our work lays the groundwork for more specialized alignment between English and Sinhala embeddings.
NLP-11-标题: Causal Graph in Language Model Rediscovers Cortical Hierarchy in Human Narrative Processing
作者: Zhengqi He, Taro Toyoizumi
备注: 15 pages, 16 figures
Abstract:Understanding how humans process natural language has long been a vital research direction. The field of natural language processing (NLP) has recently experienced a surge in the development of powerful language models. These models have proven to be invaluable tools for studying another complex system known to process human language: the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that the features of language models can be mapped to fMRI brain activity. This raises the question: is there a commonality between information processing in language models and the human brain? To estimate information flow patterns in a language model, we examined the causal relationships between different layers. Drawing inspiration from the workspace framework for consciousness, we hypothesized that features integrating more information would more accurately predict higher hierarchical brain activity. To validate this hypothesis, we classified language model features into two categories based on causal network measures: ‘low in-degree’ and ‘high in-degree’. We subsequently compared the brain prediction accuracy maps for these two groups. Our results reveal that the difference in prediction accuracy follows a hierarchical pattern, consistent with the cortical hierarchy map revealed by activity time constants. This finding suggests a parallel between how language models and the human brain process linguistic information.
NLP-12-标题: Bias A-head? Analyzing Bias in Transformer -Based Language Model Attention Heads
作者: Yi Yang, Hanyu Duan, Ahmed Abbasi, John P. Lalor, Kar Yan Tam
Abstract:Transformer-based pretrained large language models (PLM) such as BERT and GPT have achieved remarkable success in NLP tasks. However, PLMs are prone to encoding stereotypical biases. Although a burgeoning literature has emerged on stereotypical bias mitigation in PLMs, such as work on debiasing gender and racial stereotyping, how such biases manifest and behave internally within PLMs remains largely unknown. Understanding the internal stereotyping mechanisms may allow better assessment of model fairness and guide the development of effective mitigation strategies. In this work, we focus on attention heads, a major component of the Transformer architecture, and propose a bias analysis framework to explore and identify a small set of biased heads that are found to contribute to a PLM’s stereotypical bias. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the existence of these biased heads and to better understand how they behave. We investigate gender and racial bias in the English language in two types of Transformer-based PLMs: the encoder-based BERT model and the decoder-based autoregressive GPT model. Overall, the results shed light on understanding the bias behavior in pretrained language models.
NLP-13-标题: FOAL: Fine-grained Contrastive Learning for Cross-domain Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
作者: Ting Xu, Zhen Wu, Huiyun Yang, Xinyu Dai
Abstract:Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) has achieved promising results while relying on sufficient annotation data in a specific domain. However, it is infeasible to annotate data for each individual domain. We propose to explore ASTE in the cross-domain setting, which transfers knowledge from a resource-rich source domain to a resource-poor target domain, thereby alleviating the reliance on labeled data in the target domain. To effectively transfer the knowledge across domains and extract the sentiment triplets accurately, we propose a method named Fine-grained cOntrAstive Learning (FOAL) to reduce the domain discrepancy and preserve the discriminability of each category. Experiments on six transfer pairs show that FOAL achieves 6% performance gains and reduces the domain discrepancy significantly compared with strong baselines. Our code will be publicly available once accepted.
NLP-14-标题: Exploring the Relationship between In-Context Learning and Instruction Tuning
作者: Hanyu Duan, Yixuan Tang, Yi Yang, Ahmed Abbasi, Kar Yan Tam
Abstract:In-Context Learning (ICL) and Instruction Tuning (IT) are two primary paradigms of adopting Large Language Models (LLMs) to downstream applications. However, they are significantly different. In ICL, a set of demonstrations are provided at inference time but the LLM’s parameters are not updated. In IT, a set of demonstrations are used to tune LLM’s parameters in training time but no demonstrations are used at inference time. Although a growing body of literature has explored ICL and IT, studies on these topics have largely been conducted in isolation, leading to a disconnect between these two paradigms. In this work, we explore the relationship between ICL and IT by examining how the hidden states of LLMs change in these two paradigms. Through carefully designed experiments conducted with LLaMA-2 (7B and 13B), we find that ICL is implicit IT. In other words, ICL changes an LLM’s hidden states as if the demonstrations were used to instructionally tune the model. Furthermore, the convergence between ICL and IT is largely contingent upon several factors related to the provided demonstrations. Overall, this work offers a unique perspective to explore the connection between ICL and IT and sheds light on understanding the behaviors of LLM.
NLP-15-标题: Complementary Advantages of ChatGPT s and Human Readers in Reasoning: Evidence from English Text Reading Comprehension
作者: Tongquan Zhou, Yao Zhang, Siyi Cao, Yulu Li, Tao Wang
Abstract:ChatGPT has shown its great power in text processing, including its reasoning ability from text reading. However, there has not been any direct comparison between human readers and ChatGPT in reasoning ability related to text reading. This study was undertaken to investigate how ChatGPTs (i.e., ChatGPT and ChatGPT Plus) and Chinese senior school students as ESL learners exhibited their reasoning ability from English narrative texts. Additionally, we compared the two ChatGPTs in the reasoning performances when commands were updated elaborately. The whole study was composed of three reasoning tests: Test 1 for commonsense inference, Test 2 for emotional inference, and Test 3 for causal inference. The results showed that in Test 1, the students outdid the two ChatGPT versions in local-culture-related inferences but performed worse than the chatbots in daily-life inferences. In Test 2, ChatGPT Plus excelled whereas ChatGPT lagged behind in accuracy. In association with both accuracy and frequency of correct responses, the students were inferior to the two chatbots. Compared with ChatGPTs’ better performance in positive emotions, the students showed their superiority in inferring negative emotions. In Test 3, the students demonstrated better logical analysis, outdoing both chatbots. In updating command condition, ChatGPT Plus displayed good causal reasoning ability while ChatGPT kept unchanged. Our study reveals that human readers and ChatGPTs have their respective advantages and disadvantages in drawing inferences from text reading comprehension, unlocking a complementary relationship in text-based reasoning.
NLP-16-标题: Prompt Pool based Class-Incremental Continual Learning for Dialog State Tracking
作者: Hong Liu, Yucheng Cai, Yuan Zhou, Zhijian Ou, Yi Huang, Junlan Feng
Abstract:Continual learning is crucial for dialog state tracking (DST) in dialog systems, since requirements from users for new functionalities are often encountered. However, most of existing continual learning methods for DST require task identities during testing, which is a severe limit in real-world applications. In this paper, we aim to address continual learning of DST in the class-incremental scenario (namely the task identity is unknown in testing). Inspired by the recently emerging prompt tuning method that performs well on dialog systems, we propose to use the prompt pool method, where we maintain a pool of key-value paired prompts and select prompts from the pool according to the distance between the dialog history and the prompt keys. The proposed method can automatically identify tasks and select appropriate prompts during testing. We conduct experiments on Schema-Guided Dialog dataset (SGD) and another dataset collected from a real-world dialog application. Experiment results show that the prompt pool method achieves much higher joint goal accuracy than the baseline. After combining with a rehearsal buffer, the model performance can be further improved.
NLP-17-标题: Energy and Carbon Considerations of Fine-Tuning BERT EMNLP2023
作者: Xiaorong Wang, Clara Na, Emma Strubell, Sorelle Friedler, Sasha Luccioni
备注: EMNLP 2023 Findings; First two authors contributed equally; 12 pages
Abstract:Despite the popularity of the `pre-train then fine-tune’ paradigm in the NLP community, existing work quantifying energy costs and associated carbon emissions has largely focused on language model pre-training. Although a single pre-training run draws substantially more energy than fine-tuning, fine-tuning is performed more frequently by many more individual actors, and thus must be accounted for when considering the energy and carbon footprint of NLP. In order to better characterize the role of fine-tuning in the landscape of energy and carbon emissions in NLP, we perform a careful empirical study of the computational costs of fine-tuning across tasks, datasets, hardware infrastructure and measurement modalities. Our experimental results allow us to place fine-tuning energy and carbon costs into perspective with respect to pre-training and inference, and outline recommendations to NLP researchers and practitioners who wish to improve their fine-tuning energy efficiency.
NLP-18-标题: Diagnosing and Debiasing Corpus-Based Political Bias and Insults in GPT 2
作者: Ambri Ma, Arnav Kumar, Brett Zeligson
备注: 9 pages
Abstract:The training of large language models (LLMs) on extensive, unfiltered corpora sourced from the internet is a common and advantageous practice. Consequently, LLMs have learned and inadvertently reproduced various types of biases, including violent, offensive, and toxic language. However, recent research shows that generative pretrained transformer (GPT) language models can recognize their own biases and detect toxicity in generated content, a process referred to as self-diagnosis. In response, researchers have developed a decoding algorithm that allows LLMs to self-debias, or reduce their likelihood of generating harmful text. This study investigates the efficacy of the diagnosing-debiasing approach in mitigating two additional types of biases: insults and political bias. These biases are often used interchangeably in discourse, despite exhibiting potentially dissimilar semantic and syntactic properties. We aim to contribute to the ongoing effort of investigating the ethical and social implications of human-AI interaction.
NLP-19-标题: Latent Feature-based Data Splits to Improve Generalisation Evaluation: A Hate Speech Detection Case Study EMNLP2023
作者: Maike Züfle, Verna Dankers, Ivan Titov
备注: Accepted at the GenBench workshop at EMNLP 2023; 9 pages in the main paper, 5 pages with references and 4 pages with appendices
Abstract:With the ever-growing presence of social media platforms comes the increased spread of harmful content and the need for robust hate speech detection systems. Such systems easily overfit to specific targets and keywords, and evaluating them without considering distribution shifts that might occur between train and test data overestimates their benefit. We challenge hate speech models via new train-test splits of existing datasets that rely on the clustering of models’ hidden representations. We present two split variants (Subset-Sum-Split and Closest-Split) that, when applied to two datasets using four pretrained models, reveal how models catastrophically fail on blind spots in the latent space. This result generalises when developing a split with one model and evaluating it on another. Our analysis suggests that there is no clear surface-level property of the data split that correlates with the decreased performance, which underscores that task difficulty is not always humanly interpretable. We recommend incorporating latent feature-based splits in model development and release two splits via the GenBench benchmark.
NLP-20-标题: Think Twice: Perspective-Taking Improves Large Language Models Theory-of-Mind Capabilities
作者: Alex Wilf, Sihyun Shawn Lee, Paul Pu Liang, Louis-Philippe Morency
Abstract:Human interactions are deeply rooted in the interplay of thoughts, beliefs, and desires made possible by Theory of Mind (ToM): our cognitive ability to understand the mental states of ourselves and others. Although ToM may come naturally to us, emulating it presents a challenge to even the most advanced Large Language Models (LLMs). Recent improvements to LLMs’ reasoning capabilities from simple yet effective prompting techniques such as Chain-of-Thought have seen limited applicability to ToM. In this paper, we turn to the prominent cognitive science theory “Simulation Theory” to bridge this gap. We introduce SimToM, a novel two-stage prompting framework inspired by Simulation Theory’s notion of perspective-taking. To implement this idea on current ToM benchmarks, SimToM first filters context based on what the character in question knows before answering a question about their mental state. Our approach, which requires no additional training and minimal prompt-tuning, shows substantial improvement over existing methods, and our analysis reveals the importance of perspective-taking to Theory-of-Mind capabilities. Our findings suggest perspective-taking as a promising direction for future research into improving LLMs’ ToM capabilities.
NLP-21-标题: A Language and Its Dimensions: Intrinsic Dimensions of Language Fractal Structures
作者: Vasilii A. Gromov, Nikita S. Borodin, Asel S. Yerbolova
备注: Preprint. Under review
Abstract:The present paper introduces a novel object of study - a language fractal structure. We hypothesize that a set of embeddings of all n -grams of a natural language constitutes a representative sample of this fractal set. (We use the term Hailonakea to refer to the sum total of all language fractal structures, over all n ). The paper estimates intrinsic (genuine) dimensions of language fractal structures for the Russian and English languages. To this end, we employ methods based on (1) topological data analysis and (2) a minimum spanning tree of a data graph for a cloud of points considered (Steele theorem). For both languages, for all n , the intrinsic dimensions appear to be non-integer values (typical for fractal sets), close to 9 for both of the Russian and English language.
NLP-22-标题: Predictive Minds: LLM s As Atypical Active Inference Agent s
作者: Jan Kulveit, Clem von Stengel, Roman Leventov
备注: 6 pages
Abstract:Large language models (LLMs) like GPT are often conceptualized as passive predictors, simulators, or even stochastic parrots. We instead conceptualize LLMs by drawing on the theory of active inference originating in cognitive science and neuroscience. We examine similarities and differences between traditional active inference systems and LLMs, leading to the conclusion that, currently, LLMs lack a tight feedback loop between acting in the world and perceiving the impacts of their actions, but otherwise fit in the active inference paradigm. We list reasons why this loop may soon be closed, and possible consequences of this including enhanced model self-awareness and the drive to minimize prediction error by changing the world.
NLP-23-标题: The Impact of Familiarity on Naming Variation: A Study on Object Naming in Mandarin Chinese
作者: Yunke He, Xixian Liao, Jialing Liang, Gemma Boleda
Abstract:Different speakers often produce different names for the same object or entity (e.g., “woman” vs. “tourist” for a female tourist). The reasons behind variation in naming are not well understood. We create a Language and Vision dataset for Mandarin Chinese that provides an average of 20 names for 1319 naturalistic images, and investigate how familiarity with a given kind of object relates to the degree of naming variation it triggers across subjects. We propose that familiarity influences naming variation in two competing ways: increasing familiarity can either expand vocabulary, leading to higher variation, or promote convergence on conventional names, thereby reducing variation. We find evidence for both factors being at play. Our study illustrates how computational resources can be used to address research questions in Cognitive Science.
NLP-24-标题: JWSign: A Highly Multilingual Corpus of Bible Translations for more Diversity in Sign Language Processing EMNLP20223
作者: Shester Gueuwou, Sophie Siake, Colin Leong, Mathias Müller
备注: EMNLP 20223 (Findings)
Abstract:Advancements in sign language processing have been hindered by a lack of sufficient data, impeding progress in recognition, translation, and production tasks. The absence of comprehensive sign language datasets across the world’s sign languages has widened the gap in this field, resulting in a few sign languages being studied more than others, making this research area extremely skewed mostly towards sign languages from high-income countries. In this work we introduce a new large and highly multilingual dataset for sign language translation: JWSign. The dataset consists of 2,530 hours of Bible translations in 98 sign languages, featuring more than 1,500 individual signers. On this dataset, we report neural machine translation experiments. Apart from bilingual baseline systems, we also train multilingual systems, including some that take into account the typological relatedness of signed or spoken languages. Our experiments highlight that multilingual systems are superior to bilingual baselines, and that in higher-resource scenarios, clustering language pairs that are related improves translation quality.
NLP-25-标题: Zero-Shot Relational Learning on Temporal Knowledge Graphs with Large Language Models
作者: Zifeng Ding, Heling Cai, Jingpei Wu, Yunpu Ma, Ruotong Liao, Bo Xiong, Volker Tresp
Abstract:In recent years, modeling evolving knowledge over temporal knowledge graphs (TKGs) has become a heated topic. Various methods have been proposed to forecast links on TKGs. Most of them are embedding-based, where hidden representations are learned to represent knowledge graph (KG) entities and relations based on the observed graph contexts. Although these methods show strong performance on traditional TKG forecasting (TKGF) benchmarks, they naturally face a strong challenge when they are asked to model the unseen zero-shot relations that has no prior graph context. In this paper, we try to mitigate this problem as follows. We first input the text descriptions of KG relations into large language models (LLMs) for generating relation representations, and then introduce them into embedding-based TKGF methods. LLM-empowered representations can capture the semantic information in the relation descriptions. This makes the relations, whether seen or unseen, with similar semantic meanings stay close in the embedding space, enabling TKGF models to recognize zero-shot relations even without any observed graph context. Experimental results show that our approach helps TKGF models to achieve much better performance in forecasting the facts with previously unseen relations, while still maintaining their ability in link forecasting regarding seen relations.
NLP-26-标题: VideoCon: Robust Video-Language Alignment via Contrast Captions
作者: Hritik Bansal, Yonatan Bitton, Idan Szpektor, Kai-Wei Chang, Aditya Grover
备注: 22 pages, 19 Figures, 7 Tables
Abstract:Despite being (pre)trained on a massive amount of data, state-of-the-art video-language alignment models are not robust to semantically-plausible contrastive changes in the video captions. Our work addresses this by identifying a broad spectrum of contrast misalignments, such as replacing entities, actions, and flipping event order, which alignment models should be robust against. To this end, we introduce the VideoCon, a video-language alignment dataset constructed by a large language model that generates plausible contrast video captions and explanations for differences between original and contrast video captions. Then, a generative video-language model is finetuned with VideoCon to assess video-language entailment and generate explanations. Our VideoCon-based alignment model significantly outperforms current models. It exhibits a 12-point increase in AUC for the video-language alignment task on human-generated contrast captions. Finally, our model sets new state of the art zero-shot performance in temporally-extensive video-language tasks such as text-to-video retrieval (SSv2-Temporal) and video question answering (ATP-Hard). Moreover, our model shows superior performance on novel videos and human-crafted captions and explanations. Our code and data are available at this https URL.
ML-0-标题: Optimal Embedding Dimension for Sparse Subspace Embeddings
作者: Shabarish Chenakkod, Michał Dereziński, Xiaoyu Dong, Mark Rudelson
Abstract:A random m\times n matrix S is an oblivious subspace embedding (OSE) with parameters \epsilon>0 , \delta\in(0,1/3) and d\leq m\leq n , if for any d -dimensional subspace W\subseteq R^n , P\big(,\forall_x\in W\ (1+\epsilon)^-1|x|\leq|Sx|\leq (1+\epsilon)|x|,\big)\geq 1-\delta. It is known that the embedding dimension of an OSE must satisfy m\geq d , and for any \theta > 0 , a Gaussian embedding matrix with m\geq (1+\theta) d is an OSE with \epsilon = O_\theta(1) . However, such optimal embedding dimension is not known for other embeddings. Of particular interest are sparse OSEs, having s\ll m non-zeros per column, with applications to problems such as least squares regression and low-rank approximation. We show that, given any \theta > 0 , an m\times n random matrix S with m\geq (1+\theta)d consisting of randomly sparsified \pm1/\sqrt s entries and having s= O(\log^4(d)) non-zeros per column, is an oblivious subspace embedding with \epsilon = O_\theta(1) . Our result addresses the main open question posed by Nelson and Nguyen (FOCS 2013), who conjectured that sparse OSEs can achieve m=O(d) embedding dimension, and it improves on m=O(d\log(d)) shown by Cohen (SODA 2016). We use this to construct the first oblivious subspace embedding with O(d) embedding dimension that can be applied faster than current matrix multiplication time, and to obtain an optimal single-pass algorithm for least squares regression. We further extend our results to construct even sparser non-oblivious embeddings, leading to the first subspace embedding with low distortion \epsilon=o(1) and optimal embedding dimension m=O(d/\epsilon^2) that can be applied in current matrix multiplication time.
ML-1-标题: Distilling and Retrieving Generalizable Knowledge for Robot Manipulation via Language Corrections
作者: Lihan Zha, Yuchen Cui, Li-Heng Lin, Minae Kwon, Montserrat Gonzalez Arenas, Andy Zeng, Fei Xia, Dorsa Sadigh
备注: 8 pages, 4 figures, videos and code links on website this https URL
Abstract:Today’s robot policies exhibit subpar performance when faced with the challenge of generalizing to novel environments. Human corrective feedback is a crucial form of guidance to enable such generalization. However, adapting to and learning from online human corrections is a non-trivial endeavor: not only do robots need to remember human feedback over time to retrieve the right information in new settings and reduce the intervention rate, but also they would need to be able to respond to feedback that can be arbitrary corrections about high-level human preferences to low-level adjustments to skill parameters. In this work, we present Distillation and Retrieval of Online Corrections (DROC), a large language model (LLM)-based system that can respond to arbitrary forms of language feedback, distill generalizable knowledge from corrections, and retrieve relevant past experiences based on textual and visual similarity for improving performance in novel settings. DROC is able to respond to a sequence of online language corrections that address failures in both high-level task plans and low-level skill primitives. We demonstrate that DROC effectively distills the relevant information from the sequence of online corrections in a knowledge base and retrieves that knowledge in settings with new task or object instances. DROC outperforms other techniques that directly generate robot code via LLMs by using only half of the total number of corrections needed in the first round and requires little to no corrections after two iterations. We show further results, videos, prompts and code on this https URL .
ML-2-标题: Fuse It or Lose It: Deep Fusion for Multimodal Simulation-Based Inference
作者: Marvin Schmitt, Stefan T. Radev, Paul-Christian Bürkner
Abstract:We present multimodal neural posterior estimation (MultiNPE), a method to integrate heterogeneous data from different sources in simulation-based inference with neural networks. Inspired by advances in attention-based deep fusion learning, it empowers researchers to analyze data from different domains and infer the parameters of complex mathematical models with increased accuracy. We formulate different multimodal fusion approaches for MultiNPE (early, late, and hybrid) and evaluate their performance in three challenging numerical experiments. MultiNPE not only outperforms naïve baselines on a benchmark model, but also achieves superior inference on representative scientific models from neuroscience and cardiology. In addition, we systematically investigate the impact of partially missing data on the different fusion strategies. Across our different experiments, late and hybrid fusion techniques emerge as the methods of choice for practical applications of multimodal simulation-based inference.
ML-3-标题: Online Calibration of Deep Learning Sub-Models for Hybrid Numerical Modeling Systems
作者: Said Ouala, Bertrand Chapron, Fabrice Collard, Lucile Gaultier, Ronan Fablet
Abstract:Artificial intelligence and deep learning are currently reshaping numerical simulation frameworks by introducing new modeling capabilities. These frameworks are extensively investigated in the context of model correction and parameterization where they demonstrate great potential and often outperform traditional physical models. Most of these efforts in defining hybrid dynamical systems follow offline learning strategies in which the neural parameterization (called here sub-model) is trained to output an ideal correction. Yet, these hybrid models can face hard limitations when defining what should be a relevant sub-model response that would translate into a good forecasting performance. End-to-end learning schemes, also referred to as online learning, could address such a shortcoming by allowing the deep learning sub-models to train on historical data. However, defining end-to-end training schemes for the calibration of neural sub-models in hybrid systems requires working with an optimization problem that involves the solver of the physical equations. Online learning methodologies thus require the numerical model to be differentiable, which is not the case for most modeling systems. To overcome this difficulty and bypass the differentiability challenge of physical models, we present an efficient and practical online learning approach for hybrid systems. The method, called EGA for Euler Gradient Approximation, assumes an additive neural correction to the physical model, and an explicit Euler approximation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the EGA converges to the exact gradients in the limit of infinitely small time steps. Numerical experiments are performed on various case studies, including prototypical ocean-atmosphere dynamics. Results show significant improvements over offline learning, highlighting the potential of end-to-end online learning for hybrid modeling.
ML-4-标题: Learning Realistic Joint Space Boundaries for Range of Motion Analysis of Healthy and Impaired Human Arms
作者: Shafagh Keyvanian, Michelle J. Johnson, Nadia Figueroa
Abstract:A realistic human kinematic model that satisfies anatomical constraints is essential for human-robot interaction, biomechanics and robot-assisted rehabilitation. Modeling realistic joint constraints, however, is challenging as human arm motion is constrained by joint limits, inter- and intra-joint dependencies, self-collisions, individual capabilities and muscular or neurological constraints which are difficult to represent. Hence, physicians and researchers have relied on simple box-constraints, ignoring important anatomical factors. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method to learn realistic anatomically constrained upper-limb range of motion (RoM) boundaries from motion capture data. This is achieved by fitting a one-class support vector machine to a dataset of upper-limb joint space exploration motions with an efficient hyper-parameter tuning scheme. Our approach outperforms similar works focused on valid RoM learning. Further, we propose an impairment index (II) metric that offers a quantitative assessment of capability/impairment when comparing healthy and impaired arms. We validate the metric on healthy subjects physically constrained to emulate hemiplegia and different disability levels as stroke patients.
ML-5-标题: Concept-free Causal Disentanglement with Variational Graph Auto-Encoder
作者: Jingyun Feng, Lin Zhang, Lili Yang
Abstract:In disentangled representation learning, the goal is to achieve a compact representation that consists of all interpretable generative factors in the observational data. Learning disentangled representations for graphs becomes increasingly important as graph data rapidly grows. Existing approaches often rely on Variational Auto-Encoder (VAE) or its causal structure learning-based refinement, which suffer from sub-optimality in VAEs due to the independence factor assumption and unavailability of concept labels, respectively. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised solution, dubbed concept-free causal disentanglement, built on a theoretically provable tight upper bound approximating the optimal factor. This results in an SCM-like causal structure modeling that directly learns concept structures from data. Based on this idea, we propose Concept-free Causal VGAE (CCVGAE) by incorporating a novel causal disentanglement layer into Variational Graph Auto-Encoder. Furthermore, we prove concept consistency under our concept-free causal disentanglement framework, hence employing it to enhance the meta-learning framework, called concept-free causal Meta-Graph (CC-Meta-Graph). We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed models: CCVGAE and CC-Meta-Graph, reaching up to 29% and 11% absolute improvements over baselines in terms of AUC, respectively.
ML-6-标题: Predicting the Probability of Collision of a Satellite with Space Debris: A Bayesian Machine Learning Approach
作者: João Simões Catulo, Cláudia Soares, Marta Guimarães
Abstract:Space is becoming more crowded in Low Earth Orbit due to increased space activity. Such a dense space environment increases the risk of collisions between space objects endangering the whole space population. Therefore, the need to consider collision avoidance as part of routine operations is evident to satellite operators. Current procedures rely on the analysis of multiple collision warnings by human analysts. However, with the continuous growth of the space population, this manual approach may become unfeasible, highlighting the importance of automation in risk assessment. In 2019, ESA launched a competition to study the feasibility of applying machine learning in collision risk estimation and released a dataset that contained sequences of Conjunction Data Messages (CDMs) in support of real close encounters. The competition results showed that the naive forecast and its variants are strong predictors for this problem, which suggests that the CDMs may follow the Markov property. The proposed work investigates this theory by benchmarking Hidden Markov Models (HMM) in predicting the risk of collision between two resident space objects by using one feature of the entire dataset: the sequence of the probability in the CDMs. In addition, Bayesian statistics are used to infer a joint distribution for the parameters of the models, which allows the development of robust and reliable probabilistic predictive models that can incorporate physical or prior knowledge about the problem within a rigorous theoretical framework and provides prediction uncertainties that nicely reflect the accuracy of the predicted risk. This work shows that the implemented HMM outperforms the naive solution in some metrics, which further adds to the idea that the collision warnings may be Markovian and suggests that this is a powerful method to be further explored.
ML-7-标题: A Poincaré Inequality and Consistency Results for Signal Sampling on Large Graphs
作者: Thien Le, Luana Ruiz, Stefanie Jegelka
备注: 23 pages
Abstract:Large-scale graph machine learning is challenging as the complexity of learning models scales with the graph size. Subsampling the graph is a viable alternative, but sampling on graphs is nontrivial as graphs are non-Euclidean. Existing graph sampling techniques require not only computing the spectra of large matrices but also repeating these computations when the graph changes, e.g., grows. In this paper, we introduce a signal sampling theory for a type of graph limit – the graphon. We prove a Poincaré inequality for graphon signals and show that complements of node subsets satisfying this inequality are unique sampling sets for Paley-Wiener spaces of graphon signals. Exploiting connections with spectral clustering and Gaussian elimination, we prove that such sampling sets are consistent in the sense that unique sampling sets on a convergent graph sequence converge to unique sampling sets on the graphon. We then propose a related graphon signal sampling algorithm for large graphs, and demonstrate its good empirical performance on graph machine learning tasks.
ML-8-标题: Scaling TabPFN: Sketching and Feature Selection for Tabular Prior-Data Fitted Networks NEURIPS2023
作者: Benjamin Feuer, Chinmay Hegde, Niv Cohen
备注: 2nd Table Representation Learning Workshop: 37th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023)
Abstract:Tabular classification has traditionally relied on supervised algorithms, which estimate the parameters of a prediction model using its training data. Recently, Prior-Data Fitted Networks (PFNs) such as TabPFN have successfully learned to classify tabular data in-context: the model parameters are designed to classify new samples based on labelled training samples given after the model training. While such models show great promise, their applicability to real-world data remains limited due to the computational scale needed. Here we study the following question: given a pre-trained PFN for tabular data, what is the best way to summarize the labelled training samples before feeding them to the model? We conduct an initial investigation of sketching and feature-selection methods for TabPFN, and note certain key differences between it and conventionally fitted tabular models.
ML-9-标题: Active Inference on the Edge: A Design Study
作者: Boris Sedlak, Victor Casamayor Pujol, Praveen Kumar Donta, Schahram Dustdar
Abstract:Machine Learning (ML) is a common tool to interpret and predict the behavior of distributed computing systems, e.g., to optimize the task distribution between devices. As more and more data is created by Internet of Things (IoT) devices, data processing and ML training are carried out by edge devices in close proximity. To ensure Quality of Service (QoS) throughout these operations, systems are supervised and dynamically adapted with the help of ML. However, as long as ML models are not retrained, they fail to capture gradual shifts in the variable distribution, leading to an inaccurate view of the system state. Moreover, as the prediction accuracy decreases, the reporting device should actively resolve uncertainties to improve the model’s precision. Such a level of self-determination could be provided by Active Inference (ACI) – a concept from neuroscience that describes how the brain constantly predicts and evaluates sensory information to decrease long-term surprise. We encompassed these concepts in a single action-perception cycle, which we implemented for distributed agents in a smart manufacturing use case. As a result, we showed how our ACI agent was able to quickly and traceably solve an optimization problem while fulfilling QoS requirements.
ML-10-标题: Designing Reconfigurable Intelligent Systems with Markov Blankets
作者: Boris Sedlak, Victor Casamayor Pujol, Praveen Kumar Donta, Schahram Dustdar
Abstract:Compute Continuum (CC) systems comprise a vast number of devices distributed over computational tiers. Evaluating business requirements, i.e., Service Level Objectives (SLOs), requires collecting data from all those devices; if SLOs are violated, devices must be reconfigured to ensure correct operation. If done centrally, this dramatically increases the number of devices and variables that must be considered, while creating an enormous communication overhead. To address this, we (1) introduce a causality filter based on Markov blankets (MB) that limits the number of variables that each device must track, (2) evaluate SLOs decentralized on a device basis, and (3) infer optimal device configuration for fulfilling SLOs. We evaluated our methodology by analyzing video stream transformations and providing device configurations that ensure the Quality of Service (QoS). The devices thus perceived their environment and acted accordingly – a form of decentralized intelligence.
ML-11-标题: EduGym: An Environment Suite for Reinforcement Learning Education
作者: Thomas M. Moerland, Matthias Müller-Brockhausen, Zhao Yang, Andrius Bernatavicius, Koen Ponse, Tom Kouwenhoven, Andreas Sauter, Michiel van der Meer, Bram Renting, Aske Plaat
Abstract:Due to the empirical success of reinforcement learning, an increasing number of students study the subject. However, from our practical teaching experience, we see students entering the field (bachelor, master and early PhD) often struggle. On the one hand, textbooks and (online) lectures provide the fundamentals, but students find it hard to translate between equations and code. On the other hand, public codebases do provide practical examples, but the implemented algorithms tend to be complex, and the underlying test environments contain multiple reinforcement learning challenges at once. Although this is realistic from a research perspective, it often hinders educational conceptual understanding. To solve this issue we introduce EduGym, a set of educational reinforcement learning environments and associated interactive notebooks tailored for education. Each EduGym environment is specifically designed to illustrate a certain aspect/challenge of reinforcement learning (e.g., exploration, partial observability, stochasticity, etc.), while the associated interactive notebook explains the challenge and its possible solution approaches, connecting equations and code in a single document. An evaluation among RL students and researchers shows 86% of them think EduGym is a useful tool for reinforcement learning education. All notebooks are available from this https URL, while the full software package can be installed from this https URL.
ML-12-标题: Implicit Maximum a Posteriori Filtering via Adaptive Optimization ICLR2024
作者: Gianluca M. Bencomo, Jake C. Snell, Thomas L. Griffiths
备注: Under review at ICLR 2024
Abstract:Bayesian filtering approximates the true underlying behavior of a time-varying system by inverting an explicit generative model to convert noisy measurements into state estimates. This process typically requires either storage, inversion, and multiplication of large matrices or Monte Carlo estimation, neither of which are practical in high-dimensional state spaces such as the weight spaces of artificial neural networks. Here, we frame the standard Bayesian filtering problem as optimization over a time-varying objective. Instead of maintaining matrices for the filtering equations or simulating particles, we specify an optimizer that defines the Bayesian filter implicitly. In the linear-Gaussian setting, we show that every Kalman filter has an equivalent formulation using K steps of gradient descent. In the nonlinear setting, our experiments demonstrate that our framework results in filters that are effective, robust, and scalable to high-dimensional systems, comparing well against the standard toolbox of Bayesian filtering solutions. We suggest that it is easier to fine-tune an optimizer than it is to specify the correct filtering equations, making our framework an attractive option for high-dimensional filtering problems.
ML-13-标题: Graph Neural Networks for Pressure Estimation in Water Distribution Systems
作者: Huy Truong, Andrés Tello, Alexander Lazovik, Victoria Degeler
备注: submitted to Water Resources Research. Huy Truong and Andr’es Tello contributed equally to this work
Abstract:Pressure and flow estimation in Water Distribution Networks (WDN) allows water management companies to optimize their control operations. For many years, mathematical simulation tools have been the most common approach to reconstructing an estimate of the WDN hydraulics. However, pure physics-based simulations involve several challenges, e.g. partially observable data, high uncertainty, and extensive manual configuration. Thus, data-driven approaches have gained traction to overcome such limitations. In this work, we combine physics-based modeling and Graph Neural Networks (GNN), a data-driven approach, to address the pressure estimation problem. First, we propose a new data generation method using a mathematical simulation but not considering temporal patterns and including some control parameters that remain untouched in previous works; this contributes to a more diverse training data. Second, our training strategy relies on random sensor placement making our GNN-based estimation model robust to unexpected sensor location changes. Third, a realistic evaluation protocol considers real temporal patterns and additionally injects the uncertainties intrinsic to real-world scenarios. Finally, a multi-graph pre-training strategy allows the model to be reused for pressure estimation in unseen target WDNs. Our GNN-based model estimates the pressure of a large-scale WDN in The Netherlands with a MAE of 1.94mH _2 O and a MAPE of 7%, surpassing the performance of previous studies. Likewise, it outperformed previous approaches on other WDN benchmarks, showing a reduction of absolute error up to approximately 52% in the best cases.
ML-14-标题: Utilizing VQ-VAE for End-to-End Health Indicator Generation in Predicting Rolling Bearing RUL
作者: Junliang Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Guanhua Zhu, Guoxi Sun
备注: 17 figures
Abstract:The prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL) of rolling bearings is a pivotal issue in industrial production. A crucial approach to tackling this issue involves transforming vibration signals into health indicators (HI) to aid model training. This paper presents an end-to-end HI construction method, vector quantised variational autoencoder (VQ-VAE), which addresses the need for dimensionality reduction of latent variables in traditional unsupervised learning methods such as autoencoder. Moreover, concerning the inadequacy of traditional statistical metrics in reflecting curve fluctuations accurately, two novel statistical metrics, mean absolute distance (MAD) and mean variance (MV), are introduced. These metrics accurately depict the fluctuation patterns in the curves, thereby indicating the model’s accuracy in discerning similar features. On the PMH2012 dataset, methods employing VQ-VAE for label construction achieved lower values for MAD and MV. Furthermore, the ASTCN prediction model trained with VQ-VAE labels demonstrated commendable performance, attaining the lowest values for MAD and MV.
ML-15-标题: Causal Fairness-Guided Dataset Reweighting using Neural Networks
作者: Xuan Zhao, Klaus Broelemann, Salvatore Ruggieri, Gjergji Kasneci
备注: To be published in the proceedings of 2023 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (IEEE BigData 2023)
Abstract:The importance of achieving fairness in machine learning models cannot be overstated. Recent research has pointed out that fairness should be examined from a causal perspective, and several fairness notions based on the on Pearl’s causal framework have been proposed. In this paper, we construct a reweighting scheme of datasets to address causal fairness. Our approach aims at mitigating bias by considering the causal relationships among variables and incorporating them into the reweighting process. The proposed method adopts two neural networks, whose structures are intentionally used to reflect the structures of a causal graph and of an interventional graph. The two neural networks can approximate the causal model of the data, and the causal model of interventions. Furthermore, reweighting guided by a discriminator is applied to achieve various fairness notions. Experiments on real-world datasets show that our method can achieve causal fairness on the data while remaining close to the original data for downstream tasks.
ML-16-标题: From Principle to Practice: Vertical Data Minimization for Machine Learning
作者: Robin Staab, Nikola Jovanović, Mislav Balunović, Martin Vechev
备注: Accepted at IEEE S&P 2024
Abstract:Aiming to train and deploy predictive models, organizations collect large amounts of detailed client data, risking the exposure of private information in the event of a breach. To mitigate this, policymakers increasingly demand compliance with the data minimization (DM) principle, restricting data collection to only that data which is relevant and necessary for the task. Despite regulatory pressure, the problem of deploying machine learning models that obey DM has so far received little attention. In this work, we address this challenge in a comprehensive manner. We propose a novel vertical DM (vDM) workflow based on data generalization, which by design ensures that no full-resolution client data is collected during training and deployment of models, benefiting client privacy by reducing the attack surface in case of a breach. We formalize and study the corresponding problem of finding generalizations that both maximize data utility and minimize empirical privacy risk, which we quantify by introducing a diverse set of policy-aligned adversarial scenarios. Finally, we propose a range of baseline vDM algorithms, as well as Privacy-aware Tree (PAT), an especially effective vDM algorithm that outperforms all baselines across several settings. We plan to release our code as a publicly available library, helping advance the standardization of DM for machine learning. Overall, we believe our work can help lay the foundation for further exploration and adoption of DM principles in real-world applications.
ML-17-标题: Regions are Who Walk Them: a Large Pre-trained Spatiotemporal Model Based on Human Mobility for Ubiquitous Urban Sensing
作者: Ruixing Zhang, Liangzhe Han, Leilei Sun, Yunqi Liu, Jibin Wang, Weifeng Lv
备注: 8 pages
Abstract:User profiling and region analysis are two tasks of significant commercial value. However, in practical applications, modeling different features typically involves four main steps: data preparation, data processing, model establishment, evaluation, and optimization. This process is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Repeating this workflow for each feature results in abundant development time for tasks and a reduced overall volume of task development. Indeed, human mobility data contains a wealth of information. Several successful cases suggest that conducting in-depth analysis of population movement data could potentially yield meaningful profiles about users and areas. Nonetheless, most related works have not thoroughly utilized the semantic information within human mobility data and trained on a fixed number of the regions. To tap into the rich information within population movement, based on the perspective that Regions Are Who walk them, we propose a large spatiotemporal model based on trajectories (RAW). It possesses the following characteristics: 1) Tailored for trajectory data, introducing a GPT-like structure with a parameter count of up to 1B; 2) Introducing a spatiotemporal fine-tuning module, interpreting trajectories as collection of users to derive arbitrary region embedding. This framework allows rapid task development based on the large spatiotemporal model. We conducted extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our proposed large spatiotemporal model. It’s evident that our proposed method, relying solely on human mobility data without additional features, exhibits a certain level of relevance in user profiling and region analysis. Moreover, our model showcases promising predictive capabilities in trajectory generation tasks based on the current state, offering the potential for further innovative work utilizing this large spatiotemporal model.
ML-18-标题: Using Cooperative Game Theory to Prune Neural Networks
作者: Mauricio Diaz-Ortiz Jr, Benjamin Kempinski, Daphne Cornelisse, Yoram Bachrach, Tal Kachman
Abstract:We show how solution concepts from cooperative game theory can be used to tackle the problem of pruning neural networks. The ever-growing size of deep neural networks (DNNs) increases their performance, but also their computational requirements. We introduce a method called Game Theory Assisted Pruning (GTAP), which reduces the neural network’s size while preserving its predictive accuracy. GTAP is based on eliminating neurons in the network based on an estimation of their joint impact on the prediction quality through game theoretic solutions. Specifically, we use a power index akin to the Shapley value or Banzhaf index, tailored using a procedure similar to Dropout (commonly used to tackle overfitting problems in machine learning). Empirical evaluation of both feedforward networks and convolutional neural networks shows that this method outperforms existing approaches in the achieved tradeoff between the number of parameters and model accuracy.
ML-19-标题: Accurate and Fast Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Microkinetics using PINNs
作者: Harshil Patel, Aniruddha Panda, Tymofii Nikolaienko, Stanislav Jaso, Alejandro Lopez, Kaushic Kalyanaraman
Abstract:Microkinetics allows detailed modelling of chemical transformations occurring in many industrially relevant reactions. Traditional way of solving the microkinetics model for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) becomes inefficient when it comes to more advanced real-time applications. In this work, we address these challenges by using physics-informed neural networks(PINNs) for modelling FTS microkinetics. We propose a computationally efficient and accurate method, enabling the ultra-fast solution of the existing microkinetics models in realistic process conditions. The proposed PINN model computes the fraction of vacant catalytic sites, a key quantity in FTS microkinetics, with median relative error (MRE) of 0.03%, and the FTS product formation rates with MRE of 0.1%. Compared to conventional equation solvers, the model achieves up to 1E+06 times speed-up when running on GPUs, thus being fast enough for multi-scale and multi-physics reactor modelling and enabling its applications in real-time process control and optimization.
ML-20-标题: Maintenance Techniques for Anomaly Detection AIOps Solutions
作者: Lorena Poenaru-Olaru, Natalia Karpova, Luis Cruz, Jan Rellermeyer, Arie van Deursen
Abstract:Anomaly detection techniques are essential in automating the monitoring of IT systems and operations. These techniques imply that machine learning algorithms are trained on operational data corresponding to a specific period of time and that they are continuously evaluated on newly emerging data. Operational data is constantly changing over time, which affects the performance of deployed anomaly detection models. Therefore, continuous model maintenance is required to preserve the performance of anomaly detectors over time. In this work, we analyze two different anomaly detection model maintenance techniques in terms of the model update frequency, namely blind model retraining and informed model retraining. We further investigate the effects of updating the model by retraining it on all the available data (full-history approach) and on only the newest data (sliding window approach). Moreover, we investigate whether a data change monitoring tool is capable of determining when the anomaly detection model needs to be updated through retraining.
ML-21-标题: DynaPipe: Optimizing Multi-task Training through Dynamic Pipelines
作者: Chenyu Jiang, Zhen Jia, Shuai Zheng, Yida Wang, Chuan Wu
备注: 18 pages, 18 figures
Abstract:Multi-task model training has been adopted to enable a single deep neural network model (often a large language model) to handle multiple tasks (e.g., question answering and text summarization). Multi-task training commonly receives input sequences of highly different lengths due to the diverse contexts of different tasks. Padding (to the same sequence length) or packing (short examples into long sequences of the same length) is usually adopted to prepare input samples for model training, which is nonetheless not space or computation efficient. This paper proposes a dynamic micro-batching approach to tackle sequence length variation and enable efficient multi-task model training. We advocate pipeline-parallel training of the large model with variable-length micro-batches, each of which potentially comprises a different number of samples. We optimize micro-batch construction using a dynamic programming-based approach, and handle micro-batch execution time variation through dynamic pipeline and communication scheduling, enabling highly efficient pipeline training. Extensive evaluation on the FLANv2 dataset demonstrates up to 4.39x higher training throughput when training T5, and 3.25x when training GPT, as compared with packing-based baselines. DynaPipe’s source code is publicly available at this https URL.
ML-22-标题: Decentralized Energy Marketplace via NFTs and AI-based Agent s
作者: Rasoul Nikbakht, Farhana Javed, Farhad Rezazadeh, Nikolaos Bartzoudis, Josep Mangues-Bafalluy
备注: 6 pages
Abstract:The paper introduces an advanced Decentralized Energy Marketplace (DEM) integrating blockchain technology and artificial intelligence to manage energy exchanges among smart homes with energy storage systems. The proposed framework uses Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) to represent unique energy profiles in a transparent and secure trading environment. Leveraging Federated Deep Reinforcement Learning (FDRL), the system promotes collaborative and adaptive energy management strategies, maintaining user privacy. A notable innovation is the use of smart contracts, ensuring high efficiency and integrity in energy transactions. Extensive evaluations demonstrate the system’s scalability and the effectiveness of the FDRL method in optimizing energy distribution. This research significantly contributes to developing sophisticated decentralized smart grid infrastructures. Our approach broadens potential blockchain and AI applications in sustainable energy systems and addresses incentive alignment and transparency challenges in traditional energy trading mechanisms. The implementation of this paper is publicly accessible at \urlthis https URL.
ML-23-标题: Delete My Account: Impact of Data Deletion on Machine Learning Classifiers
作者: Tobias Dam, Maximilian Henzl, Lukas Daniel Klausner
备注: 14 pages, 14 figures
Abstract:Users are more aware than ever of the importance of their own data, thanks to reports about security breaches and leaks of private, often sensitive data in recent years. Additionally, the GDPR has been in effect in the European Union for over three years and many people have encountered its effects in one way or another. Consequently, more and more users are actively protecting their personal data. One way to do this is to make of the right to erasure guaranteed in the GDPR, which has potential implications for a number of different fields, such as big data and machine learning. Our paper presents an in-depth analysis about the impact of the use of the right to erasure on the performance of machine learning models on classification tasks. We conduct various experiments utilising different datasets as well as different machine learning algorithms to analyse a variety of deletion behaviour scenarios. Due to the lack of credible data on actual user behaviour, we make reasonable assumptions for various deletion modes and biases and provide insight into the effects of different plausible scenarios for right to erasure usage on data quality of machine learning. Our results show that the impact depends strongly on the amount of data deleted, the particular characteristics of the dataset and the bias chosen for deletion and assumptions on user behaviour.
ML-24-标题: Few-shot Message-Enhanced Contrastive Learning for Graph Anomaly Detection
作者: Fan Xu, Nan Wang, Xuezhi Wen, Meiqi Gao, Chaoqun Guo, Xibin Zhao
Abstract:Graph anomaly detection plays a crucial role in identifying exceptional instances in graph data that deviate significantly from the majority. It has gained substantial attention in various domains of information security, including network intrusion, financial fraud, and malicious comments, et al. Existing methods are primarily developed in an unsupervised manner due to the challenge in obtaining labeled data. For lack of guidance from prior knowledge in unsupervised manner, the identified anomalies may prove to be data noise or individual data instances. In real-world scenarios, a limited batch of labeled anomalies can be captured, making it crucial to investigate the few-shot problem in graph anomaly detection. Taking advantage of this potential, we propose a novel few-shot Graph Anomaly Detection model called FMGAD (Few-shot Message-Enhanced Contrastive-based Graph Anomaly Detector). FMGAD leverages a self-supervised contrastive learning strategy within and across views to capture intrinsic and transferable structural representations. Furthermore, we propose the Deep-GNN message-enhanced reconstruction module, which extensively exploits the few-shot label information and enables long-range propagation to disseminate supervision signals to deeper unlabeled nodes. This module in turn assists in the training of self-supervised contrastive learning. Comprehensive experimental results on six real-world datasets demonstrate that FMGAD can achieve better performance than other state-of-the-art methods, regardless of artificially injected anomalies or domain-organic anomalies.
ML-25-标题: FIKIT: Priority-Based Real-time GPU Multi-tasking Scheduling with Kernel Identification
作者: Wenqing Wu
备注: 19 pages, 18 figures
Abstract:Highly parallelized workloads like machine learning training, inferences and general HPC tasks are greatly accelerated using GPU devices. In a cloud computing cluster, serving a GPU’s computation power through multi-tasks sharing is highly demanded since there are always more task requests than the number of GPU available. Existing GPU sharing solutions focus on reducing task-level waiting time or task-level switching costs when multiple jobs competing for a single GPU. Non-stopped computation requests come with different priorities, having non-symmetric impact on QoS for sharing a GPU device. Existing work missed the kernel-level optimization opportunity brought by this setting. To address this problem, we present a novel kernel-level scheduling strategy called FIKIT: Filling Inter-kernel Idle Time. FIKIT incorporates task-level priority information, fine-grained kernel identification, and kernel measurement, allowing low priorities task’s execution during high priority task’s inter-kernel idle time. Thereby, filling the GPU’s device runtime fully, and reduce overall GPU sharing impact to cloud services. Across a set of ML models, the FIKIT based inference system accelerated high priority tasks by 1.33 to 14.87 times compared to the JCT in GPU sharing mode, and more than half of the cases are accelerated by more than 3.5 times. Alternatively, under preemptive sharing, the low-priority tasks have a comparable to default GPU sharing mode JCT, with a 0.84 to 1 times ratio. We further limit the kernel measurement and runtime fine-grained kernel scheduling overhead to less than 10%.
ML-26-标题: Federated Knowledge Graph Completion via Latent Embedding Sharing and Tensor Factorization ICDM2023
作者: Maolin Wang, Dun Zeng, Zenglin Xu, Ruocheng Guo, Xiangyu Zhao
备注: Accepted by ICDM 2023
Abstract:Knowledge graphs (KGs), which consist of triples, are inherently incomplete and always require completion procedure to predict missing triples. In real-world scenarios, KGs are distributed across clients, complicating completion tasks due to privacy restrictions. Many frameworks have been proposed to address the issue of federated knowledge graph completion. However, the existing frameworks, including FedE, FedR, and FEKG, have certain limitations. = FedE poses a risk of information leakage, FedR’s optimization efficacy diminishes when there is minimal overlap among relations, and FKGE suffers from computational costs and mode collapse issues. To address these issues, we propose a novel method, i.e., Federated Latent Embedding Sharing Tensor factorization (FLEST), which is a novel approach using federated tensor factorization for KG completion. FLEST decompose the embedding matrix and enables sharing of latent dictionary embeddings to lower privacy risks. Empirical results demonstrate FLEST’s effectiveness and efficiency, offering a balanced solution between performance and privacy. FLEST expands the application of federated tensor factorization in KG completion tasks.
ML-27-标题: Clustering Techniques for Stable Linear Dynamical Systems with applications to Hard Disk Drives
作者: Nikhil Potu Surya Prakash, Joohwan Seo, Jongeun Choi, Roberto Horowitz
备注: 6 pages, 4 figures
Abstract:In Robust Control and Data Driven Robust Control design methodologies, multiple plant transfer functions or a family of transfer functions are considered and a common controller is designed such that all the plants that fall into this family are stabilized. Though the plants are stabilized, the controller might be sub-optimal for each of the plants when the variations in the plants are large. This paper presents a way of clustering stable linear dynamical systems for the design of robust controllers within each of the clusters such that the controllers are optimal for each of the clusters. First a k-medoids algorithm for hard clustering will be presented for stable Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems and then a Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) clustering for a special class of LTI systems, common for Hard Disk Drive plants, will be presented.
ML-28-标题: Graph Sparsifications using Neural Network Assisted Monte Carlo Tree Search
作者: Alvin Chiu, Mithun Ghosh, Reyan Ahmed, Kwang-Sung Jun, Stephen Kobourov, Michael T. Goodrich
备注: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2305.00535
Abstract:Graph neural networks have been successful for machine learning, as well as for combinatorial and graph problems such as the Subgraph Isomorphism Problem and the Traveling Salesman Problem. We describe an approach for computing graph sparsifiers by combining a graph neural network and Monte Carlo Tree Search. We first train a graph neural network that takes as input a partial solution and proposes a new node to be added as output. This neural network is then used in a Monte Carlo search to compute a sparsifier. The proposed method consistently outperforms several standard approximation algorithms on different types of graphs and often finds the optimal solution.
ML-29-标题: Imagination-augmented Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning for Safe and Interactive Autonomous Driving in Urban Environments
作者: Sang-Hyun Lee, Yoonjae Jung, Seung-Woo Seo
备注: 11 pages, 8 figures
Abstract:Hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) has led to remarkable achievements in diverse fields. However, existing HRL algorithms still cannot be applied to real-world navigation tasks. These tasks require an agent to perform safety-aware behaviors and interact with surrounding objects in dynamic environments. In addition, an agent in these tasks should perform consistent and structured exploration as they are long-horizon and have complex structures with diverse objects and task-specific rules. Designing HRL agents that can handle these challenges in real-world navigation tasks is an open problem. In this paper, we propose imagination-augmented HRL (IAHRL), a new and general navigation algorithm that allows an agent to learn safe and interactive behaviors in real-world navigation tasks. Our key idea is to train a hierarchical agent in which a high-level policy infers interactions by interpreting behaviors imagined with low-level policies. Specifically, the high-level policy is designed with a permutation-invariant attention mechanism to determine which low-level policy generates the most interactive behavior, and the low-level policies are implemented with an optimization-based behavior planner to generate safe and structured behaviors following task-specific rules. To evaluate our algorithm, we introduce five complex urban driving tasks, which are among the most challenging real-world navigation tasks. The experimental results indicate that our hierarchical agent performs safety-aware behaviors and properly interacts with surrounding vehicles, achieving higher success rates and lower average episode steps than baselines in urban driving tasks.
ML-30-标题: Supervised structure learning
作者: Karl J. Friston, Lancelot Da Costa, Alexander Tschantz, Alex Kiefer, Tommaso Salvatori, Victorita Neacsu, Magnus Koudahl, Conor Heins, Noor Sajid, Dimitrije Markovic, Thomas Parr, Tim Verbelen, Christopher L Buckley
Abstract:This paper concerns structure learning or discovery of discrete generative models. It focuses on Bayesian model selection and the assimilation of training data or content, with a special emphasis on the order in which data are ingested. A key move - in the ensuing schemes - is to place priors on the selection of models, based upon expected free energy. In this setting, expected free energy reduces to a constrained mutual information, where the constraints inherit from priors over outcomes (i.e., preferred outcomes). The resulting scheme is first used to perform image classification on the MNIST dataset to illustrate the basic idea, and then tested on a more challenging problem of discovering models with dynamics, using a simple sprite-based visual disentanglement paradigm and the Tower of Hanoi (cf., blocks world) problem. In these examples, generative models are constructed autodidactically to recover (i.e., disentangle) the factorial structure of latent states - and their characteristic paths or dynamics.
ML-31-标题: Leveraging Function Space Aggregation for Federated Learning at Scale
作者: Nikita Dhawan, Nicole Mitchell, Zachary Charles, Zachary Garrett, Gintare Karolina Dziugaite
备注: 20 pages, 7 figures
Abstract:The federated learning paradigm has motivated the development of methods for aggregating multiple client updates into a global server model, without sharing client data. Many federated learning algorithms, including the canonical Federated Averaging (FedAvg), take a direct (possibly weighted) average of the client parameter updates, motivated by results in distributed optimization. In this work, we adopt a function space perspective and propose a new algorithm, FedFish, that aggregates local approximations to the functions learned by clients, using an estimate based on their Fisher information. We evaluate FedFish on realistic, large-scale cross-device benchmarks. While the performance of FedAvg can suffer as client models drift further apart, we demonstrate that FedFish is more robust to longer local training. Our evaluation across several settings in image and language benchmarks shows that FedFish outperforms FedAvg as local training epochs increase. Further, FedFish results in global networks that are more amenable to efficient personalization via local fine-tuning on the same or shifted data distributions. For instance, federated pretraining on the C4 dataset, followed by few-shot personalization on Stack Overflow, results in a 7% improvement in next-token prediction by FedFish over FedAvg.
ML-32-标题: Sobol Sequence Optimization for Hardware-Efficient Vector Symbolic Architectures
作者: Sercan Aygun, M. Hassan Najafi
备注: 9 pages, 7 figures
Abstract:Hyperdimensional computing (HDC) is an emerging computing paradigm with significant promise for efficient and robust learning. In HDC, objects are encoded with high-dimensional vector symbolic sequences called hypervectors. The quality of hypervectors, defined by their distribution and independence, directly impacts the performance of HDC systems. Despite a large body of work on the processing parts of HDC systems, little to no attention has been paid to data encoding and the quality of hypervectors. Most prior studies have generated hypervectors using inherent random functions, such as MATLAB
s or Pythons random function. This work introduces an optimization technique for generating hypervectors by employing quasi-random sequences. These sequences have recently demonstrated their effectiveness in achieving accurate and low-discrepancy data encoding in stochastic computing systems. The study outlines the optimization steps for utilizing Sobol sequences to produce high-quality hypervectors in HDC systems. An optimization algorithm is proposed to select the most suitable Sobol sequences for generating minimally correlated hypervectors, particularly in applications related to symbol-oriented architectures. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated in comparison to two traditional approaches of generating hypervectors based on linear-feedback shift registers and MATLAB random function. The evaluation is conducted for two applications: (i) language and (ii) headline classification. Our experimental results demonstrate accuracy improvements of up to 10.79%, depending on the vector size. Additionally, the proposed encoding hardware exhibits reduced energy consumption and a superior area-delay product.
ML-33-标题: Multiscale Hodge Scattering Networks for Data Analysis
作者: Naoki Saito, Stefan C. Schonsheck, Eugene Shvarts
备注: 20 Pages, Comments Welcome
Abstract:We propose new scattering networks for signals measured on simplicial complexes, which we call \emphMultiscale Hodge Scattering Networks (MHSNs). Our construction is based on multiscale basis dictionaries on simplicial complexes, i.e., the \kappa -GHWT and \kappa -HGLET, which we recently developed for simplices of dimension \kappa \in \N in a given simplicial complex by generalizing the node-based Generalized Haar-Walsh Transform (GHWT) and Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigen Transform (HGLET). The \kappa -GHWT and the \kk -HGLET both form redundant sets (i.e., dictionaries) of multiscale basis vectors and the corresponding expansion coefficients of a given signal. Our MHSNs use a layered structure analogous to a convolutional neural network (CNN) to cascade the moments of the modulus of the dictionary coefficients. The resulting features are invariant to reordering of the simplices (i.e., node permutation of the underlying graphs). Importantly, the use of multiscale basis dictionaries in our MHSNs admits a natural pooling operation that is akin to local pooling in CNNs, and which may be performed either locally or per-scale. These pooling operations are harder to define in both traditional scattering networks based on Morlet wavelets, and geometric scattering networks based on Diffusion Wavelets. As a result, we are able to extract a rich set of descriptive yet robust features that can be used along with very simple machine learning methods (i.e., logistic regression or support vector machines) to achieve high-accuracy classification systems with far fewer parameters to train than most modern graph neural networks. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our MHSNs in three distinct types of problems: signal classification, domain (i.e., graph/simplex) classification, and molecular dynamics prediction.
ML-34-标题: Stable Differentiable Causal Discovery
作者: Achille Nazaret, Justin Hong, Elham Azizi, David Blei
Abstract:Inferring causal relationships as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) is an important but challenging problem. Differentiable Causal Discovery (DCD) is a promising approach to this problem, framing the search as a continuous optimization. But existing DCD methods are numerically unstable, with poor performance beyond tens of variables. In this paper, we propose Stable Differentiable Causal Discovery (SDCD), a new method that improves previous DCD methods in two ways: (1) It employs an alternative constraint for acyclicity; this constraint is more stable, both theoretically and empirically, and fast to compute. (2) It uses a training procedure tailored for sparse causal graphs, which are common in real-world scenarios. We first derive SDCD and prove its stability and correctness. We then evaluate it with both observational and interventional data and on both small-scale and large-scale settings. We find that SDCD outperforms existing methods in both convergence speed and accuracy and can scale to thousands of variables.
ML-35-标题: FREE: The Foundational Semantic Recognition for Modeling Environmental Ecosystems
作者: Shiyuan Luo, Juntong Ni, Shengyu Chen, Runlong Yu, Yiqun Xie, Licheng Liu, Zhenong Jin, Huaxiu Yao, Xiaowei Jia
Abstract:Modeling environmental ecosystems is critical for the sustainability of our planet, but is extremely challenging due to the complex underlying processes driven by interactions amongst a large number of physical variables. As many variables are difficult to measure at large scales, existing works often utilize a combination of observable features and locally available measurements or modeled values as input to build models for a specific study region and time period. This raises a fundamental question in advancing the modeling of environmental ecosystems: how to build a general framework for modeling the complex relationships amongst various environmental data over space and time? In this paper, we introduce a new framework, FREE, which maps available environmental data into a text space and then converts the traditional predictive modeling task in environmental science to the semantic recognition problem. The proposed FREE framework leverages recent advances in Large Language Models (LLMs) to supplement the original input features with natural language descriptions. This facilitates capturing the data semantics and also allows harnessing the irregularities of input features. When used for long-term prediction, FREE has the flexibility to incorporate newly collected observations to enhance future prediction. The efficacy of FREE is evaluated in the context of two societally important real-world applications, predicting stream water temperature in the Delaware River Basin and predicting annual corn yield in Illinois and Iowa. Beyond the superior predictive performance over multiple baseline methods, FREE is shown to be more data- and computation-efficient as it can be pre-trained on simulated data generated by physics-based models.
ML-36-标题: FedTruth: Byzantine-Robust and Backdoor-Resilient Federated Learning Framework
作者: Sheldon C. Ebron Jr., Kan Yang
Abstract:Federated Learning (FL) enables collaborative machine learning model training across multiple parties without sharing raw data. However, FL’s distributed nature allows malicious clients to impact model training through Byzantine or backdoor attacks, using erroneous model updates. Existing defenses measure the deviation of each update from a ‘ground-truth model update.’ They often rely on a benign root dataset on the server or use trimmed mean or median for clipping, both methods having limitations. We introduce FedTruth, a robust defense against model poisoning in FL. FedTruth doesn’t assume specific data distributions nor requires a benign root dataset. It estimates a global model update with dynamic aggregation weights, considering contributions from all benign clients. Empirical studies demonstrate FedTruth’s efficacy in mitigating the impacts of poisoned updates from both Byzantine and backdoor attacks.
ML-37-标题: Surprisal Driven k-NN for Robust and Interpretable Nonparametric Learning
作者: Amartya Banerjee, Christopher J. Hazard, Jacob Beel, Cade Mack, Jack Xia, Michael Resnick, Will Goddin
Abstract:Nonparametric learning is a fundamental concept in machine learning that aims to capture complex patterns and relationships in data without making strong assumptions about the underlying data distribution. Owing to simplicity and familiarity, one of the most well-known algorithms under this paradigm is the k -nearest neighbors ( k -NN) algorithm. Driven by the usage of machine learning in safety-critical applications, in this work, we shed new light on the traditional nearest neighbors algorithm from the perspective of information theory and propose a robust and interpretable framework for tasks such as classification, regression, and anomaly detection using a single model. Instead of using a traditional distance measure which needs to be scaled and contextualized, we use a novel formulation of \textitsurprisal (amount of information required to explain the difference between the observed and expected result). Finally, we demonstrate this architecture’s capability to perform at-par or above the state-of-the-art on classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks using a single model with enhanced interpretability by providing novel concepts for characterizing data and predictions.
ML-38-标题: Advancements in Generative AI: A Comprehensive Review of GANs GPT Autoencoders Diffusion Model and Transformer s
作者: Staphord Bengesi, Hoda El-Sayed, Md Kamruzzaman Sarker, Yao Houkpati, John Irungu, Timothy Oladunni
Abstract:The launch of ChatGPT has garnered global attention, marking a significant milestone in the field of Generative Artificial Intelligence. While Generative AI has been in effect for the past decade, the introduction of ChatGPT has ignited a new wave of research and innovation in the AI domain. This surge in interest has led to the development and release of numerous cutting-edge tools, such as Bard, Stable Diffusion, DALL-E, Make-A-Video, Runway ML, and Jukebox, among others. These tools exhibit remarkable capabilities, encompassing tasks ranging from text generation and music composition, image creation, video production, code generation, and even scientific work. They are built upon various state-of-the-art models, including Stable Diffusion, transformer models like GPT-3 (recent GPT-4), variational autoencoders, and generative adversarial networks. This advancement in Generative AI presents a wealth of exciting opportunities and, simultaneously, unprecedented challenges. Throughout this paper, we have explored these state-of-the-art models, the diverse array of tasks they can accomplish, the challenges they pose, and the promising future of Generative Artificial Intelligence.
ML-39-标题: Asymptotically Fair Participation in Machine Learning Models: an Optimal Control Perspective
作者: Zhuotong Chen, Qianxiao Li, Zheng Zhang
备注: 34 pages
Abstract:The performance of state-of-the-art machine learning models often deteriorates when testing on demographics that are under-represented in the training dataset. This problem has predominately been studied in a supervised learning setting where the data distribution is static. However, real-world applications often involve distribution shifts caused by the deployed models. For instance, the performance disparity against monitory users can lead to a high customer churn rate, thus the available data provided by active users are skewed due to the lack of minority users. This feedback effect further exacerbates the disparity among different demographic groups in future steps. To address this issue, we propose asymptotically fair participation as a condition to maintain long-term model performance over all demographic groups. In this work, we aim to address the problem of achieving asymptotically fair participation via optimal control formulation. Moreover, we design a surrogate retention system based on existing literature on evolutionary population dynamics to approximate the dynamics of distribution shifts on active user counts, from which the objective of achieving asymptotically fair participation is formulated as an optimal control problem, and the control variables are considered as the model parameters. We apply an efficient implementation of Pontryagin’s maximum principle to estimate the optimal control solution. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we design a generic simulation environment that simulates the population dynamics of the feedback effect between user retention and model performance. When we deploy the resulting models to the simulation environment, the optimal control solution accounts for long-term planning and leads to superior performance compared with existing baseline methods.
ML-40-标题: Bayes in the age of intelligent machines
作者: Thomas L. Griffiths, Jian-Qiao Zhu, Erin Grant, R. Thomas McCoy
Abstract:The success of methods based on artificial neural networks in creating intelligent machines seems like it might pose a challenge to explanations of human cognition in terms of Bayesian inference. We argue that this is not the case, and that in fact these systems offer new opportunities for Bayesian modeling. Specifically, we argue that Bayesian models of cognition and artificial neural networks lie at different levels of analysis and are complementary modeling approaches, together offering a way to understand human cognition that spans these levels. We also argue that the same perspective can be applied to intelligent machines, where a Bayesian approach may be uniquely valuable in understanding the behavior of large, opaque artificial neural networks that are trained on proprietary data.
ML-41-标题: Adaptive Optimization Algorithms for Machine Learning
作者: Slavomír Hanzely
备注: Dissertation thesis
Abstract:Machine learning assumes a pivotal role in our data-driven world. The increasing scale of models and datasets necessitates quick and reliable algorithms for model training. This dissertation investigates adaptivity in machine learning optimizers. The ensuing chapters are dedicated to various facets of adaptivity, including: 1. personalization and user-specific models via personalized loss, 2. provable post-training model adaptations via meta-learning, 3. learning unknown hyperparameters in real time via hyperparameter variance reduction, 4. fast O(1/k^2) global convergence of second-order methods via stepsized Newton method regardless of the initialization and choice basis, 5. fast and scalable second-order methods via low-dimensional updates. This thesis contributes novel insights, introduces new algorithms with improved convergence guarantees, and improves analyses of popular practical algorithms.
ML-42-标题: Improving Unimodal Inference with Multimodal Transformer s
作者: Kateryna Chumachenko, Alexandros Iosifidis, Moncef Gabbouj
Abstract:This paper proposes an approach for improving performance of unimodal models with multimodal training. Our approach involves a multi-branch architecture that incorporates unimodal models with a multimodal transformer-based branch. By co-training these branches, the stronger multimodal branch can transfer its knowledge to the weaker unimodal branches through a multi-task objective, thereby improving the performance of the resulting unimodal models. We evaluate our approach on tasks of dynamic hand gesture recognition based on RGB and Depth, audiovisual emotion recognition based on speech and facial video, and audio-video-text based sentiment analysis. Our approach outperforms the conventionally trained unimodal counterparts. Interestingly, we also observe that optimization of the unimodal branches improves the multimodal branch, compared to a similar multimodal model trained from scratch.
ML-43-标题: Algebraic Topological Networks via the Persistent Local Homology Sheaf NEURIPS2023
作者: Gabriele Cesa, Arash Behboodi
备注: Symmetry and Geometry in Neural Representations - NeurReps Workshop @ NeurIPS 2023
Abstract:In this work, we introduce a novel approach based on algebraic topology to enhance graph convolution and attention modules by incorporating local topological properties of the data. To do so, we consider the framework of sheaf neural networks, which has been previously leveraged to incorporate additional structure into graph neural networks’ features and construct more expressive, non-isotropic messages. Specifically, given an input simplicial complex (e.g. generated by the cliques of a graph or the neighbors in a point cloud), we construct its local homology sheaf, which assigns to each node the vector space of its local homology. The intermediate features of our networks live in these vector spaces and we leverage the associated sheaf Laplacian to construct more complex linear messages between them. Moreover, we extend this approach by considering the persistent version of local homology associated with a weighted simplicial complex (e.g., built from pairwise distances of nodes embeddings). This i) solves the problem of the lack of a natural choice of basis for the local homology vector spaces and ii) makes the sheaf itself differentiable, which enables our models to directly optimize the topology of their intermediate features.
ML-44-标题: Learning interactions to boost human creativity with bandits and GPT -4
作者: Ara Vartanian, Xiaoxi Sun, Yun-Shiuan Chuang, Siddharth Suresh, Xiaojin Zhu, Timothy T. Rogers
Abstract:This paper considers how interactions with AI algorithms can boost human creative thought. We employ a psychological task that demonstrates limits on human creativity, namely semantic feature generation: given a concept name, respondents must list as many of its features as possible. Human participants typically produce only a fraction of the features they know before getting “stuck.” In experiments with humans and with a language AI (GPT-4) we contrast behavior in the standard task versus a variant in which participants can ask for algorithmically-generated hints. Algorithm choice is administered by a multi-armed bandit whose reward indicates whether the hint helped generating more features. Humans and the AI show similar benefits from hints, and remarkably, bandits learning from AI responses prefer the same prompting strategy as those learning from human behavior. The results suggest that strategies for boosting human creativity via computer interactions can be learned by bandits run on groups of simulated participants.
ML-45-标题: Accommodating Missing Modalities in Time-Continuous Multimodal Emotion Recognition
作者: Juan Vazquez-Rodriguez (M-PSI), Grégoire Lefebvre, Julien Cumin, James L. Crowley (M-PSI)
Abstract:Decades of research indicate that emotion recognition is more effective when drawing information from multiple modalities. But what if some modalities are sometimes missing? To address this problem, we propose a novel Transformer-based architecture for recognizing valence and arousal in a time-continuous manner even with missing input modalities. We use a coupling of cross-attention and self-attention mechanisms to emphasize relationships between modalities during time and enhance the learning process on weak salient inputs. Experimental results on the Ulm-TSST dataset show that our model exhibits an improvement of the concordance correlation coefficient evaluation of 37% when predicting arousal values and 30% when predicting valence values, compared to a late-fusion baseline approach.
ML-46-标题: Automatic Engineering of Long Prompt s
作者: Cho-Jui Hsieh, Si Si, Felix X. Yu, Inderjit S. Dhillon
Abstract:Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in solving complex open-domain tasks, guided by comprehensive instructions and demonstrations provided in the form of prompts. However, these prompts can be lengthy, often comprising hundreds of lines and thousands of tokens, and their design often requires considerable human effort. Recent research has explored automatic prompt engineering for short prompts, typically consisting of one or a few sentences. However, the automatic design of long prompts remains a challenging problem due to its immense search space. In this paper, we investigate the performance of greedy algorithms and genetic algorithms for automatic long prompt engineering. We demonstrate that a simple greedy approach with beam search outperforms other methods in terms of search efficiency. Moreover, we introduce two novel techniques that utilize search history to enhance the effectiveness of LLM-based mutation in our search algorithm. Our results show that the proposed automatic long prompt engineering algorithm achieves an average of 9.2% accuracy gain on eight tasks in Big Bench Hard, highlighting the significance of automating prompt designs to fully harness the capabilities of LLMs.
ML-47-标题: Gaussian Differential Privacy on Riemannian Manifolds
作者: Yangdi Jiang, Xiaotian Chang, Yi Liu, Lei Ding, Linglong Kong, Bei Jiang
Abstract:We develop an advanced approach for extending Gaussian Differential Privacy (GDP) to general Riemannian manifolds. The concept of GDP stands out as a prominent privacy definition that strongly warrants extension to manifold settings, due to its central limit properties. By harnessing the power of the renowned Bishop-Gromov theorem in geometric analysis, we propose a Riemannian Gaussian distribution that integrates the Riemannian distance, allowing us to achieve GDP in Riemannian manifolds with bounded Ricci curvature. To the best of our knowledge, this work marks the first instance of extending the GDP framework to accommodate general Riemannian manifolds, encompassing curved spaces, and circumventing the reliance on tangent space summaries. We provide a simple algorithm to evaluate the privacy budget \mu on any one-dimensional manifold and introduce a versatile Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based algorithm to calculate \mu on any Riemannian manifold with constant curvature. Through simulations on one of the most prevalent manifolds in statistics, the unit sphere S^d , we demonstrate the superior utility of our Riemannian Gaussian mechanism in comparison to the previously proposed Riemannian Laplace mechanism for implementing GDP.
ML-48-标题: Machine learning phase transitions: Connections to the Fisher information
作者: Julian Arnold, Niels Lörch, Flemming Holtorf, Frank Schäfer
备注: 7+11 pages, 2+3 figures
Abstract:Despite the widespread use and success of machine-learning techniques for detecting phase transitions from data, their working principle and fundamental limits remain elusive. Here, we explain the inner workings and identify potential failure modes of these techniques by rooting popular machine-learning indicators of phase transitions in information-theoretic concepts. Using tools from information geometry, we prove that several machine-learning indicators of phase transitions approximate the square root of the system’s (quantum) Fisher information from below – a quantity that is known to indicate phase transitions but is often difficult to compute from data. We numerically demonstrate the quality of these bounds for phase transitions in classical and quantum systems.
ML-49-标题: Multi-delay arterial spin-labeled perfusion estimation with biophysics simulation and deep learning
作者: Renjiu Hu, Qihao Zhang, Pascal Spincemaille, Thanh D. Nguyen, Yi Wang
备注: 32 pages, 5 figures
Abstract:Purpose: To develop biophysics-based method for estimating perfusion Q from arterial spin labeling (ASL) images using deep learning. Methods: A 3D U-Net (QTMnet) was trained to estimate perfusion from 4D tracer propagation images. The network was trained and tested on simulated 4D tracer concentration data based on artificial vasculature structure generated by constrained constructive optimization (CCO) method. The trained network was further tested in a synthetic brain ASL image based on vasculature network extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The estimations from both trained network and a conventional kinetic model were compared in ASL images acquired from eight healthy volunteers. Results: QTMnet accurately reconstructed perfusion Q from concentration data. Relative error of the synthetic brain ASL image was 7.04% for perfusion Q, lower than the error using single-delay ASL model: 25.15% for Q, and multi-delay ASL model: 12.62% for perfusion Q. Conclusion: QTMnet provides accurate estimation on perfusion parameters and is a promising approach as a clinical ASL MRI image processing pipeline.
ML-50-标题: Direct Amortized Likelihood Ratio Estimation
作者: Adam D. Cobb, Brian Matejek, Daniel Elenius, Anirban Roy, Susmit Jha
备注: 12 Pages, 10 Figures, GitHub: this https URL
Abstract:We introduce a new amortized likelihood ratio estimator for likelihood-free simulation-based inference (SBI). Our estimator is simple to train and estimates the likelihood ratio using a single forward pass of the neural estimator. Our approach directly computes the likelihood ratio between two competing parameter sets which is different from the previous approach of comparing two neural network output values. We refer to our model as the direct neural ratio estimator (DNRE). As part of introducing the DNRE, we derive a corresponding Monte Carlo estimate of the posterior. We benchmark our new ratio estimator and compare to previous ratio estimators in the literature. We show that our new ratio estimator often outperforms these previous approaches. As a further contribution, we introduce a new derivative estimator for likelihood ratio estimators that enables us to compare likelihood-free Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) with random-walk Metropolis-Hastings (MH). We show that HMC is equally competitive, which has not been previously shown. Finally, we include a novel real-world application of SBI by using our neural ratio estimator to design a quadcopter. Code is available at this https URL.
ML-51-标题: RONAALP: Reduced-Order Nonlinear Approximation with Active Learning Procedure
作者: Clément Scherding (1), Georgios Rigas (2), Denis Sipp (3), Peter J Schmid (4), Taraneh Sayadi (1 and 5) ((1) Institut Jean le Rond d’Alembert, Sorbonne University, (2) Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, (3) DAAA, Onera, (4) Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAUST, (5) Institute for Combustion Technology, Aachen University)
备注: 38 pages, 16 figures
Abstract:Many engineering applications rely on the evaluation of expensive, non-linear high-dimensional functions. In this paper, we propose the RONAALP algorithm (Reduced Order Nonlinear Approximation with Active Learning Procedure) to incrementally learn a fast and accurate reduced-order surrogate model of a target function on-the-fly as the application progresses. First, the combination of nonlinear auto-encoder, community clustering and radial basis function networks allows to learn an efficient and compact surrogate model with limited training data. Secondly, the active learning procedure overcome any extrapolation issue when evaluating the surrogate model outside of its initial training range during the online stage. This results in generalizable, fast and accurate reduced-order models of high-dimensional functions. The method is demonstrated on three direct numerical simulations of hypersonic flows in chemical nonequilibrium. Accurate simulations of these flows rely on detailed thermochemical gas models that dramatically increase the cost of such calculations. Using RONAALP to learn a reduced-order thermodynamic model surrogate on-the-fly, the cost of such simulation was reduced by up to 75% while maintaining an error of less than 10% on relevant quantities of interest.
ML-52-标题: Handling Overlapping Asymmetric Dataset s – A Twice Penalized P-Spline Approach
作者: Matthew McTeer, Robin Henderson, Quentin M Anstee, Paolo Missier
备注: 52 pages, 17 figures, 8 tables, 34 references
Abstract:Overlapping asymmetric datasets are common in data science and pose questions of how they can be incorporated together into a predictive analysis. In healthcare datasets there is often a small amount of information that is available for a larger number of patients such as an electronic health record, however a small number of patients may have had extensive further testing. Common solutions such as missing imputation can often be unwise if the smaller cohort is significantly different in scale to the larger sample, therefore the aim of this research is to develop a new method which can model the smaller cohort against a particular response, whilst considering the larger cohort also. Motivated by non-parametric models, and specifically flexible smoothing techniques via generalized additive models, we model a twice penalized P-Spline approximation method to firstly prevent over/under-fitting of the smaller cohort and secondly to consider the larger cohort. This second penalty is created through discrepancies in the marginal value of covariates that exist in both the smaller and larger cohorts. Through data simulations, parameter tunings and model adaptations to consider a continuous and binary response, we find our twice penalized approach offers an enhanced fit over a linear B-Spline and once penalized P-Spline approximation. Applying to a real-life dataset relating to a person’s risk of developing Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, we see an improved model fit performance of over 65%. Areas for future work within this space include adapting our method to not require dimensionality reduction and also consider parametric modelling methods. However, to our knowledge this is the first work to propose additional marginal penalties in a flexible regression of which we can report a vastly improved model fit that is able to consider asymmetric datasets, without the need for missing data imputation.
ML-53-标题: A Bridge between Dynamical Systems and Machine Learning: Engineered Ordinary Differential Equations as Classification Algorithm (EODECA)
作者: Raffaele Marino, Lorenzo Giambagli, Lorenzo Chicchi, Lorenzo Buffoni, Duccio Fanelli
备注: 24 pages
Abstract:In a world increasingly reliant on machine learning, the interpretability of these models remains a substantial challenge, with many equating their functionality to an enigmatic black box. This study seeks to bridge machine learning and dynamical systems. Recognizing the deep parallels between dense neural networks and dynamical systems, particularly in the light of non-linearities and successive transformations, this manuscript introduces the Engineered Ordinary Differential Equations as Classification Algorithms (EODECAs). Uniquely designed as neural networks underpinned by continuous ordinary differential equations, EODECAs aim to capitalize on the well-established toolkit of dynamical systems. Unlike traditional deep learning models, which often suffer from opacity, EODECAs promise both high classification performance and intrinsic interpretability. They are naturally invertible, granting them an edge in understanding and transparency over their counterparts. By bridging these domains, we hope to usher in a new era of machine learning models where genuine comprehension of data processes complements predictive prowess.
ML-54-标题: Towards Machine Learning-based Quantitative Hyperspectral Image Guidance for Brain Tumor Resection
作者: David Black, Declan Byrne, Anna Walke, Sidong Liu, Antonio Di leva, Sadahiro Kaneko, Walter Stummer, Septimiu Salcudean, Eric Suero Molina
备注: 22 pages, 8 figures
Abstract:Complete resection of malignant gliomas is hampered by the difficulty in distinguishing tumor cells at the infiltration zone. Fluorescence guidance with 5-ALA assists in reaching this goal. Using hyperspectral imaging, previous work characterized five fluorophores’ emission spectra in most human brain tumors. In this paper, the effectiveness of these five spectra was explored for different tumor and tissue classification tasks in 184 patients (891 hyperspectral measurements) harboring low- (n=30) and high-grade gliomas (n=115), non-glial primary brain tumors (n=19), radiation necrosis (n=2), miscellaneous (n=10) and metastases (n=8). Four machine learning models were trained to classify tumor type, grade, glioma margins and IDH mutation. Using random forests and multi-layer perceptrons, the classifiers achieved average test accuracies of 74-82%, 79%, 81%, and 93% respectively. All five fluorophore abundances varied between tumor margin types and tumor grades (p < 0.01). For tissue type, at least four of the five fluorophore abundances were found to be significantly different (p < 0.01) between all classes. These results demonstrate the fluorophores’ differing abundances in different tissue classes, as well as the value of the five fluorophores as potential optical biomarkers, opening new opportunities for intraoperative classification systems in fluorescence-guided neurosurgery.
ML-55-标题: Interpretable Modeling of Single-cell perturbation Responses to Novel Drugs Using Cycle Consistence Learning
作者: Wei Huang, Aichun Zhu, Hui Liu
Abstract:Phenotype-based screening has attracted much attention for identifying cell-active compounds. Transcriptional and proteomic profiles of cell population or single cells are informative phenotypic measures of cellular responses to perturbations. In this paper, we proposed a deep learning framework based on encoder-decoder architecture that maps the initial cellular states to a latent space, in which we assume the effects of drug perturbation on cellular states follow linear additivity. Next, we introduced the cycle consistency constraints to enforce that initial cellular state subjected to drug perturbations would produce the perturbed cellular responses, and, conversely, removal of drug perturbation from the perturbed cellular states would restore the initial cellular states. The cycle consistency constraints and linear modeling in latent space enable to learn interpretable and transferable drug perturbation representations, so that our model can predict cellular response to unseen drugs. We validated our model on three different types of datasets, including bulk transcriptional responses, bulk proteomic responses, and single-cell transcriptional responses to drug perturbations. The experimental results show that our model achieves better performance than existing state-of-the-art methods.
CV-0-标题: Emu Video: Factorizing Text-to-Video Generation by Explicit Image Conditioning
作者: Rohit Girdhar, Mannat Singh, Andrew Brown, Quentin Duval, Samaneh Azadi, Sai Saketh Rambhatla, Akbar Shah, Xi Yin, Devi Parikh, Ishan Misra
备注: Project page: this https URL
Abstract:We present Emu Video, a text-to-video generation model that factorizes the generation into two steps: first generating an image conditioned on the text, and then generating a video conditioned on the text and the generated image. We identify critical design decisions–adjusted noise schedules for diffusion, and multi-stage training–that enable us to directly generate high quality and high resolution videos, without requiring a deep cascade of models as in prior work. In human evaluations, our generated videos are strongly preferred in quality compared to all prior work–81% vs. Google’s Imagen Video, 90% vs. Nvidia’s PYOCO, and 96% vs. Meta’s Make-A-Video. Our model outperforms commercial solutions such as RunwayML’s Gen2 and Pika Labs. Finally, our factorizing approach naturally lends itself to animating images based on a user’s text prompt, where our generations are preferred 96% over prior work.
CV-1-标题: SelfEval: Leveraging the discriminative nature of generative models for evaluation
作者: Sai Saketh Rambhatla, Ishan Misra
Abstract:In this work, we show that text-to-image generative models can be ‘inverted’ to assess their own text-image understanding capabilities in a completely automated manner. Our method, called SelfEval, uses the generative model to compute the likelihood of real images given text prompts, making the generative model directly applicable to discriminative tasks. Using SelfEval, we repurpose standard datasets created for evaluating multimodal text-image discriminative models to evaluate generative models in a fine-grained manner: assessing their performance on attribute binding, color recognition, counting, shape recognition, spatial understanding. To the best of our knowledge SelfEval is the first automated metric to show a high degree of agreement for measuring text-faithfulness with the gold-standard human evaluations across multiple models and benchmarks. Moreover, SelfEval enables us to evaluate generative models on challenging tasks such as Winoground image-score where they demonstrate competitive performance to discriminative models. We also show severe drawbacks of standard automated metrics such as CLIP-score to measure text faithfulness on benchmarks such as DrawBench, and how SelfEval sidesteps these issues. We hope SelfEval enables easy and reliable automated evaluation for diffusion models.
CV-2-标题: Multimodal Representation Learning by Alternating Unimodal Adaptation
作者: Xiaohui Zhang, Jaehong Yoon, Mohit Bansal, Huaxiu Yao
Abstract:Multimodal learning, which integrates data from diverse sensory modes, plays a pivotal role in artificial intelligence. However, existing multimodal learning methods often struggle with challenges where some modalities appear more dominant than others during multimodal learning, resulting in suboptimal performance. To address this challenge, we propose MLA (Multimodal Learning with Alternating Unimodal Adaptation). MLA reframes the conventional joint multimodal learning process by transforming it into an alternating unimodal learning process, thereby minimizing interference between modalities. Simultaneously, it captures cross-modal interactions through a shared head, which undergoes continuous optimization across different modalities. This optimization process is controlled by a gradient modification mechanism to prevent the shared head from losing previously acquired information. During the inference phase, MLA utilizes a test-time uncertainty-based model fusion mechanism to integrate multimodal information. Extensive experiments are conducted on five diverse datasets, encompassing scenarios with complete modalities and scenarios with missing modalities. These experiments demonstrate the superiority of MLA over competing prior approaches.
CV-3-标题: SpACNN-LDVAE: Spatial Attention Convolutional Latent Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder for Hyperspectral Pixel Unmixing
作者: Soham Chitnis, Kiran Mantripragada, Faisal Z. Qureshi
Abstract:The Hyperspectral Unxming problem is to find the pure spectral signal of the underlying materials (endmembers) and their proportions (abundances). The proposed method builds upon the recently proposed method, Latent Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder (LDVAE). It assumes that abundances can be encoded as Dirichlet Distributions while mixed pixels and endmembers are represented by Multivariate Normal Distributions. However, LDVAE does not leverage spatial information present in an HSI; we propose an Isotropic CNN encoder with spatial attention to solve the hyperspectral unmixing problem. We evaluated our model on Samson, Hydice Urban, Cuprite, and OnTech-HSI-Syn-21 datasets. Our model also leverages the transfer learning paradigm for Cuprite Dataset, where we train the model on synthetic data and evaluate it on real-world data. We are able to observe the improvement in the results for the endmember extraction and abundance estimation by incorporating the spatial information. Code can be found at this https URL
CV-4-标题: Using linear initialisation to improve speed of convergence and fully-trained error in Autoencoders
作者: Marcel Marais, Mate Hartstein, George Cevora
Abstract:Good weight initialisation is an important step in successful training of Artificial Neural Networks. Over time a number of improvements have been proposed to this process. In this paper we introduce a novel weight initialisation technique called the Straddled Matrix Initialiser. This initialisation technique is motivated by our assumption that major, global-scale relationships in data are linear with only smaller effects requiring complex non-linearities. Combination of Straddled Matrix and ReLU activation function initialises a Neural Network as a de facto linear model, which we postulate should be a better starting point for optimisation given our assumptions. We test this by training autoencoders on three datasets using Straddled Matrix and seven other state-of-the-art weight initialisation techniques. In all our experiments the Straddeled Matrix Initialiser clearly outperforms all other methods.
CV-5-标题: Versatile Medical Image Segmentation Learned from Multi-Source Dataset s via Model Self-Disambiguation
作者: Xiaoyang Chen, Hao Zheng, Yuemeng Li, Yuncong Ma, Liang Ma, Hongming Li, Yong Fan
Abstract:A versatile medical image segmentation model applicable to imaging data collected with diverse equipment and protocols can facilitate model deployment and maintenance. However, building such a model typically requires a large, diverse, and fully annotated dataset, which is rarely available due to the labor-intensive and costly data curation. In this study, we develop a cost-efficient method by harnessing readily available data with partially or even sparsely annotated segmentation labels. We devise strategies for model self-disambiguation, prior knowledge incorporation, and imbalance mitigation to address challenges associated with inconsistently labeled data from various sources, including label ambiguity and imbalances across modalities, datasets, and segmentation labels. Experimental results on a multi-modal dataset compiled from eight different sources for abdominal organ segmentation have demonstrated our method’s effectiveness and superior performance over alternative state-of-the-art methods, highlighting its potential for optimizing the use of existing annotated data and reducing the annotation efforts for new data to further enhance model capability.
CV-6-标题: 3D-TexSeg: Unsupervised Segmentation of 3D Texture using Mutual Transformer Learning
作者: Iyyakutti Iyappan Ganapathi, Fayaz Ali, Sajid Javed, Syed Sadaf Ali, Naoufel Werghi
备注: This paper is accepted in 3DV-2024
Abstract:Analysis of the 3D Texture is indispensable for various tasks, such as retrieval, segmentation, classification, and inspection of sculptures, knitted fabrics, and biological tissues. A 3D texture is a locally repeated surface variation independent of the surface’s overall shape and can be determined using the local neighborhood and its characteristics. Existing techniques typically employ computer vision techniques that analyze a 3D mesh globally, derive features, and then utilize the obtained features for retrieval or classification. Several traditional and learning-based methods exist in the literature, however, only a few are on 3D texture, and nothing yet, to the best of our knowledge, on the unsupervised schemes. This paper presents an original framework for the unsupervised segmentation of the 3D texture on the mesh manifold. We approach this problem as binary surface segmentation, partitioning the mesh surface into textured and non-textured regions without prior annotation. We devise a mutual transformer-based system comprising a label generator and a cleaner. The two models take geometric image representations of the surface mesh facets and label them as texture or non-texture across an iterative mutual learning scheme. Extensive experiments on three publicly available datasets with diverse texture patterns demonstrate that the proposed framework outperforms standard and SOTA unsupervised techniques and competes reasonably with supervised methods.
CV-7-标题: Self-trained Panoptic Segmentation
作者: Shourya Verma
Abstract:Panoptic segmentation is an important computer vision task which combines semantic and instance segmentation. It plays a crucial role in domains of medical image analysis, self-driving vehicles, and robotics by providing a comprehensive understanding of visual environments. Traditionally, deep learning panoptic segmentation models have relied on dense and accurately annotated training data, which is expensive and time consuming to obtain. Recent advancements in self-supervised learning approaches have shown great potential in leveraging synthetic and unlabelled data to generate pseudo-labels using self-training to improve the performance of instance and semantic segmentation models. The three available methods for self-supervised panoptic segmentation use proposal-based transformer architectures which are computationally expensive, complicated and engineered for specific tasks. The aim of this work is to develop a framework to perform embedding-based self-supervised panoptic segmentation using self-training in a synthetic-to-real domain adaptation problem setting.
CV-8-标题: CA-Jaccard: Camera-aware Jaccard Distance for Person Re-identification
作者: Yiyu Chen, Zheyi Fan, Zhaoru Chen, Yixuan Zhu
Abstract:Person re-identification (re-ID) is a challenging task that aims to learn discriminative features for person retrieval. In person re-ID, Jaccard distance is a widely used distance metric, especially in re-ranking and clustering scenarios. However, we discover that camera variation has a significant negative impact on the reliability of Jaccard distance. In particular, Jaccard distance calculates the distance based on the overlap of relevant neighbors. Due to camera variation, intra-camera samples dominate the relevant neighbors, which reduces the reliability of the neighbors by introducing intra-camera negative samples and excluding inter-camera positive samples. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel camera-aware Jaccard (CA-Jaccard) distance that leverages camera information to enhance the reliability of Jaccard distance. Specifically, we introduce camera-aware k-reciprocal nearest neighbors (CKRNNs) to find k-reciprocal nearest neighbors on the intra-camera and inter-camera ranking lists, which improves the reliability of relevant neighbors and guarantees the contribution of inter-camera samples in the overlap. Moreover, we propose a camera-aware local query expansion (CLQE) to exploit camera variation as a strong constraint to mine reliable samples in relevant neighbors and assign these samples higher weights in overlap to further improve the reliability. Our CA-Jaccard distance is simple yet effective and can serve as a general distance metric for person re-ID methods with high reliability and low computational cost. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
CV-9-标题: Multimodal Indoor Localization Using Crowdsourced Radio Maps
作者: Zhaoguang Yi, Xiangyu Wen, Qiyue Xia, Peize Li, Francisco Zampella, Firas Alsehly, Chris Xiaoxuan Lu
备注: 7 pages, 4 figures
Abstract:Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) traditionally rely on odometry and building infrastructures like WiFi, often supplemented by building floor plans for increased accuracy. However, the limitation of floor plans in terms of availability and timeliness of updates challenges their wide applicability. In contrast, the proliferation of smartphones and WiFi-enabled robots has made crowdsourced radio maps - databases pairing locations with their corresponding Received Signal Strengths (RSS) - increasingly accessible. These radio maps not only provide WiFi fingerprint-location pairs but encode movement regularities akin to the constraints imposed by floor plans. This work investigates the possibility of leveraging these radio maps as a substitute for floor plans in multimodal IPS. We introduce a new framework to address the challenges of radio map inaccuracies and sparse coverage. Our proposed system integrates an uncertainty-aware neural network model for WiFi localization and a bespoken Bayesian fusion technique for optimal fusion. Extensive evaluations on multiple real-world sites indicate a significant performance enhancement, with results showing ~ 25% improvement over the best baseline
CV-10-标题: Détection dobjets célestes dans des images astronomiques par IA explicable
作者: Olivier Parisot, Mahmoud Jaziri
备注: 9 pages, in French, accepted in short version for EGC2024 (24`eme conf’erence francophone sur l’Extraction et la Gestion des Connaissances)
Abstract:Amateur and professional astronomers can easily capture a large number of deep sky images with recent smart telescopes. However, afterwards verification is still required to check whether the celestial objects targeted are actually visible in the images produced. Depending on the magnitude of the targets, the observation conditions and the time during which the data is captured, it is possible that only stars are present in the images. In this study, we propose an approach based on explainable Artificial Intelligence to automatically detect the presence and position of captured objects. – – Grâce à l’apport des télescopes automatisés grand public, les astronomes amateurs et professionnels peuvent capturer facilement une grande quantité d’images du ciel profond (comme par exemple les galaxies, nébuleuses, ou amas globulaires). Néanmoins, une vérification reste nécessaire à postériori pour vérifier si les objets célestes visés sont effectivement visibles dans les images produites: cela dépend notamment de la magnitude des cibles, des conditions d’observation mais aussi de la durée pendant laquelle les données sont capturées. Dans cette étude, nous proposons une approche basée sur l’IA explicable pour détecter automatiquement la présence et la position des objets capturés.
CV-11-标题: FOCAL: A Cost-Aware Video Dataset for Active Learning
作者: Kiran Kokilepersaud, Yash-Yee Logan, Ryan Benkert, Chen Zhou, Mohit Prabhushankar, Ghassan AlRegib, Enrique Corona, Kunjan Singh, Mostafa Parchami
备注: This paper was accepted as a main conference paper at the IEEE International Conference on Big Data
Abstract:In this paper, we introduce the FOCAL (Ford-OLIVES Collaboration on Active Learning) dataset which enables the study of the impact of annotation-cost within a video active learning setting. Annotation-cost refers to the time it takes an annotator to label and quality-assure a given video sequence. A practical motivation for active learning research is to minimize annotation-cost by selectively labeling informative samples that will maximize performance within a given budget constraint. However, previous work in video active learning lacks real-time annotation labels for accurately assessing cost minimization and instead operates under the assumption that annotation-cost scales linearly with the amount of data to annotate. This assumption does not take into account a variety of real-world confounding factors that contribute to a nonlinear cost such as the effect of an assistive labeling tool and the variety of interactions within a scene such as occluded objects, weather, and motion of objects. FOCAL addresses this discrepancy by providing real annotation-cost labels for 126 video sequences across 69 unique city scenes with a variety of weather, lighting, and seasonal conditions. We also introduce a set of conformal active learning algorithms that take advantage of the sequential structure of video data in order to achieve a better trade-off between annotation-cost and performance while also reducing floating point operations (FLOPS) overhead by at least 77.67%. We show how these approaches better reflect how annotations on videos are done in practice through a sequence selection framework. We further demonstrate the advantage of these approaches by introducing two performance-cost metrics and show that the best conformal active learning method is cheaper than the best traditional active learning method by 113 hours.
CV-12-标题: Human motion trajectory prediction using the Social Force Model for real-time and low computational cost applications
作者: Oscar Gil, Alberto Sanfeliu
Abstract:Human motion trajectory prediction is a very important functionality for human-robot collaboration, specifically in accompanying, guiding, or approaching tasks, but also in social robotics, self-driving vehicles, or security systems. In this paper, a novel trajectory prediction model, Social Force Generative Adversarial Network (SoFGAN), is proposed. SoFGAN uses a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and Social Force Model (SFM) to generate different plausible people trajectories reducing collisions in a scene. Furthermore, a Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CVAE) module is added to emphasize the destination learning. We show that our method is more accurate in making predictions in UCY or BIWI datasets than most of the current state-of-the-art models and also reduces collisions in comparison to other approaches. Through real-life experiments, we demonstrate that the model can be used in real-time without GPU’s to perform good quality predictions with a low computational cost.
CV-13-标题: SSB: Simple but Strong Baseline for Boosting Performance of Open-Set Semi-Supervised Learning ICCV2023
作者: Yue Fan, Anna Kukleva, Dengxin Dai, Bernt Schiele
备注: Paper accepted in ICCV 2023
Abstract:Semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods effectively leverage unlabeled data to improve model generalization. However, SSL models often underperform in open-set scenarios, where unlabeled data contain outliers from novel categories that do not appear in the labeled set. In this paper, we study the challenging and realistic open-set SSL setting, where the goal is to both correctly classify inliers and to detect outliers. Intuitively, the inlier classifier should be trained on inlier data only. However, we find that inlier classification performance can be largely improved by incorporating high-confidence pseudo-labeled data, regardless of whether they are inliers or outliers. Also, we propose to utilize non-linear transformations to separate the features used for inlier classification and outlier detection in the multi-task learning framework, preventing adverse effects between them. Additionally, we introduce pseudo-negative mining, which further boosts outlier detection performance. The three ingredients lead to what we call Simple but Strong Baseline (SSB) for open-set SSL. In experiments, SSB greatly improves both inlier classification and outlier detection performance, outperforming existing methods by a large margin. Our code will be released at this https URL.
CV-14-标题: Archtree: on-the-fly tree-structured exploration for latency-aware pruning of deep neural networks
作者: Rémi Ouazan Reboul, Edouard Yvinec, Arnaud Dapogny, Kevin Bailly
备注: 10 pages, 7 figures
Abstract:Deep neural networks (DNNs) have become ubiquitous in addressing a number of problems, particularly in computer vision. However, DNN inference is computationally intensive, which can be prohibitive e.g. when considering edge devices. To solve this problem, a popular solution is DNN pruning, and more so structured pruning, where coherent computational blocks (e.g. channels for convolutional networks) are removed: as an exhaustive search of the space of pruned sub-models is intractable in practice, channels are typically removed iteratively based on an importance estimation heuristic. Recently, promising latency-aware pruning methods were proposed, where channels are removed until the network reaches a target budget of wall-clock latency pre-emptively estimated on specific hardware. In this paper, we present Archtree, a novel method for latency-driven structured pruning of DNNs. Archtree explores multiple candidate pruned sub-models in parallel in a tree-like fashion, allowing for a better exploration of the search space. Furthermore, it involves on-the-fly latency estimation on the target hardware, accounting for closer latencies as compared to the specified budget. Empirical results on several DNN architectures and target hardware show that Archtree better preserves the original model accuracy while better fitting the latency budget as compared to existing state-of-the-art methods.
CV-15-标题: Joint covariance property under geometric image transformations for spatio-temporal receptive fields according to the generalized Gaussian derivative model for visual receptive fields
作者: Tony Lindeberg
备注: 7 pages
Abstract:The influence of natural image transformations on receptive field responses is crucial for modelling visual operations in computer vision and biological vision. In this regard, covariance properties with respect to geometric image transformations in the earliest layers of the visual hierarchy are essential for expressing robust image operations and for formulating invariant visual operations at higher levels. This paper defines and proves a joint covariance property under compositions of spatial scaling transformations, spatial affine transformations, Galilean transformations and temporal scaling transformations, which makes it possible to characterize how different types of image transformations interact with each other. Specifically, the derived relations show how the receptive field parameters need to be transformed, in order to match the output from spatio-temporal receptive fields with the underlying spatio-temporal image transformations.
CV-16-标题: Segment Anything Model with Uncertainty Rectification for Auto- Prompting Medical Image Segmentation
作者: Yichi Zhang, Shiyao Hu, Chen Jiang, Yuan Cheng, Yuan Qi
Abstract:The introduction of the Segment Anything Model (SAM) has marked a significant advancement in prompt-driven image segmentation. However, SAM’s application to medical image segmentation requires manual prompting of target structures to obtain acceptable performance, which is still labor-intensive. Despite attempts of auto-prompting to turn SAM into a fully automatic manner, it still exhibits subpar performance and lacks of reliability in the field of medical imaging. In this paper, we propose UR-SAM, an uncertainty rectified SAM framework to enhance the robustness and reliability for auto-prompting medical image segmentation. Our method incorporates a prompt augmentation module to estimate the distribution of predictions and generate uncertainty maps, and an uncertainty-based rectification module to further enhance the performance of SAM. Extensive experiments on two public 3D medical datasets covering the segmentation of 35 organs demonstrate that without supplementary training or fine-tuning, our method further improves the segmentation performance with up to 10.7 % and 13.8 % in dice similarity coefficient, demonstrating efficiency and broad capabilities for medical image segmentation without manual prompting.
CV-17-标题: Removing Adverse Volumetric Effects From Trained Neural Radiance Fields
作者: Andreas L. Teigen, Mauhing Yip, Victor P. Hamran, Vegard Skui, Annette Stahl, Rudolf Mester
备注: This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible
Abstract:While the use of neural radiance fields (NeRFs) in different challenging settings has been explored, only very recently have there been any contributions that focus on the use of NeRF in foggy environments. We argue that the traditional NeRF models are able to replicate scenes filled with fog and propose a method to remove the fog when synthesizing novel views. By calculating the global contrast of a scene, we can estimate a density threshold that, when applied, removes all visible fog. This makes it possible to use NeRF as a way of rendering clear views of objects of interest located in fog-filled environments. Additionally, to benchmark performance on such scenes, we introduce a new dataset that expands some of the original synthetic NeRF scenes through the addition of fog and natural environments. The code, dataset, and video results can be found on our project page: this https URL
CV-18-标题: Enhancing Object Coherence in Layout-to-Image Synthesis
作者: Yibin Wang, Weizhong Zhang, Jianwei Zheng, Cheng Jin
Abstract:Layout-to-image synthesis is an emerging technique in conditional image generation. It aims to generate complex scenes, where users require fine control over the layout of the objects in a scene. However, it remains challenging to control the object coherence, including semantic coherence (e.g., the cat looks at the flowers or not) and physical coherence (e.g., the hand and the racket should not be misaligned). In this paper, we propose a novel diffusion model with effective global semantic fusion (GSF) and self-similarity feature enhancement modules to guide the object coherence for this task. For semantic coherence, we argue that the image caption contains rich information for defining the semantic relationship within the objects in the images. Instead of simply employing cross-attention between captions and generated images, which addresses the highly relevant layout restriction and semantic coherence separately and thus leads to unsatisfying results shown in our experiments, we develop GSF to fuse the supervision from the layout restriction and semantic coherence requirement and exploit it to guide the image synthesis process. Moreover, to improve the physical coherence, we develop a Self-similarity Coherence Attention (SCA) module to explicitly integrate local contextual physical coherence into each pixel’s generation process. Specifically, we adopt a self-similarity map to encode the coherence restrictions and employ it to extract coherent features from text embedding. Through visualization of our self-similarity map, we explore the essence of SCA, revealing that its effectiveness is not only in capturing reliable physical coherence patterns but also in enhancing complex texture generation. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method in both image generation quality and controllability.
CV-19-标题: Mind the map! Accounting for existing map information when estimating online HDMaps from sensor data
作者: Rémy Sun, Li Yang, Diane Lingrand, Frédéric Precioso
备注: 12 pages, 4 figures, 7 tables
Abstract:Online High Definition Map (HDMap) estimation from sensors offers a low-cost alternative to manually acquired HDMaps. As such, it promises to lighten costs for already HDMap-reliant Autonomous Driving systems, and potentially even spread their use to new systems. In this paper, we propose to improve online HDMap estimation by accounting for already existing maps. We identify 3 reasonable types of useful existing maps (minimalist, noisy, and outdated). We also introduce MapEX, a novel online HDMap estimation framework that accounts for existing maps. MapEX achieves this by encoding map elements into query tokens and by refining the matching algorithm used to train classic query based map estimation models. We demonstrate that MapEX brings significant improvements on the nuScenes dataset. For instance, MapEX - given noisy maps - improves by 38% over the MapTRv2 detector it is based on and by 16% over the current SOTA.
CV-20-标题: A Framework of Landsat-8 Band Selection based on UMDA for Deforestation Detection
作者: Eduardo B. Neto, Paulo R. C. Pedro, Alvaro Fazenda, Fabio A. Faria
备注: in Portuguese language. Best Paper Award at the Workshop of Undergraduate Works (WUW), SIBGRAPI 2023
Abstract:The conservation of tropical forests is a current subject of social and ecological relevance due to their crucial role in the global ecosystem. Unfortunately, millions of hectares are deforested and degraded each year. Therefore, government or private initiatives are needed for monitoring tropical forests. In this sense, this work proposes a novel framework, which uses of distribution estimation algorithm (UMDA) to select spectral bands from Landsat-8 that yield a better representation of deforestation areas to guide a semantic segmentation architecture called DeepLabv3+. In performed experiments, it was possible to find several compositions that reach balanced accuracy superior to 90% in segment classification tasks. Furthermore, the best composition (651) found by UMDA algorithm fed the DeepLabv3+ architecture and surpassed in efficiency and effectiveness all compositions compared in this work.
CV-21-标题: A Relay System for Semantic Image Transmission based on Shared Feature Extraction and Hyperprior Entropy Compression
作者: Wannian An, Zhicheng Bao, Haotai Liang, Chen Dong, Xiaodong
Abstract:Nowadays, the need for high-quality image reconstruction and restoration is more and more urgent. However, most image transmission systems may suffer from image quality degradation or transmission interruption in the face of interference such as channel noise and link fading. To solve this problem, a relay communication network for semantic image transmission based on shared feature extraction and hyperprior entropy compression (HEC) is proposed, where the shared feature extraction technology based on Pearson correlation is proposed to eliminate partial shared feature of extracted semantic latent feature. In addition, the HEC technology is used to resist the effect of channel noise and link fading and carried out respectively at the source node and the relay node. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with other recent research methods, the proposed system has lower transmission overhead and higher semantic image transmission performance. Particularly, under the same conditions, the multi-scale structural similarity (MS-SSIM) of this system is superior to the comparison method by approximately 0.2.
CV-22-标题: FRCSyn Challenge at WACV 2024:Face Recognition Challenge in the Era of Synthetic Data WACV2024
作者: Pietro Melzi, Ruben Tolosana, Ruben Vera-Rodriguez, Minchul Kim, Christian Rathgeb, Xiaoming Liu, Ivan DeAndres-Tame, Aythami Morales, Julian Fierrez, Javier Ortega-Garcia, Weisong Zhao, Xiangyu Zhu, Zheyu Yan, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Jinlin Wu, Zhen Lei, Suvidha Tripathi, Mahak Kothari, Md Haider Zama, Debayan Deb, Bernardo Biesseck, Pedro Vidal, Roger Granada, Guilherme Fickel, Gustavo Führ, David Menotti, Alexander Unnervik, Anjith George, Christophe Ecabert, Hatef Otroshi Shahreza, Parsa Rahimi, Sébastien Marcel, Ioannis Sarridis, Christos Koutlis, Georgia Baltsou, Symeon Papadopoulos, Christos Diou, Nicolò Di Domenico, Guido Borghi, Lorenzo Pellegrini, Enrique Mas-Candela, Ángela Sánchez-Pérez, Andrea Atzori, Fadi Boutros, Naser Damer, Gianni Fenu, Mirko Marras
备注: 10 pages, 1 figure, WACV 2024 Workshops
Abstract:Despite the widespread adoption of face recognition technology around the world, and its remarkable performance on current benchmarks, there are still several challenges that must be covered in more detail. This paper offers an overview of the Face Recognition Challenge in the Era of Synthetic Data (FRCSyn) organized at WACV 2024. This is the first international challenge aiming to explore the use of synthetic data in face recognition to address existing limitations in the technology. Specifically, the FRCSyn Challenge targets concerns related to data privacy issues, demographic biases, generalization to unseen scenarios, and performance limitations in challenging scenarios, including significant age disparities between enrollment and testing, pose variations, and occlusions. The results achieved in the FRCSyn Challenge, together with the proposed benchmark, contribute significantly to the application of synthetic data to improve face recognition technology.
CV-23-标题: DeepClean: Machine Unlearning on the Cheap by Resetting Privacy Sensitive Weights using the Fisher Diagonal
作者: Jiaeli Shi, Najah Ghalyan, Kostis Gourgoulias, John Buford, Sean Moran
Abstract:Machine learning models trained on sensitive or private data can inadvertently memorize and leak that information. Machine unlearning seeks to retroactively remove such details from model weights to protect privacy. We contribute a lightweight unlearning algorithm that leverages the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) for selective forgetting. Prior work in this area requires full retraining or large matrix inversions, which are computationally expensive. Our key insight is that the diagonal elements of the FIM, which measure the sensitivity of log-likelihood to changes in weights, contain sufficient information for effective forgetting. Specifically, we compute the FIM diagonal over two subsets – the data to retain and forget – for all trainable weights. This diagonal representation approximates the complete FIM while dramatically reducing computation. We then use it to selectively update weights to maximize forgetting of the sensitive subset while minimizing impact on the retained subset. Experiments show that our algorithm can successfully forget any randomly selected subsets of training data across neural network architectures. By leveraging the FIM diagonal, our approach provides an interpretable, lightweight, and efficient solution for machine unlearning with practical privacy benefits.
CV-24-标题: DUA-DA: Distillation -based Unbiased Alignment for Domain Adaptive Object Detection
作者: Yongchao Feng, Shiwei Li, Yingjie Gao, Ziyue Huang, Yanan Zhang, Qingjie Liu, Yunhong Wang
备注: 10pages,5 figures
Abstract:Though feature-alignment based Domain Adaptive Object Detection (DAOD) have achieved remarkable progress, they ignore the source bias issue, i.e. the aligned features are more favorable towards the source domain, leading to a sub-optimal adaptation. Furthermore, the presence of domain shift between the source and target domains exacerbates the problem of inconsistent classification and localization in general detection pipelines. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel Distillation-based Unbiased Alignment (DUA) framework for DAOD, which can distill the source features towards a more balanced position via a pre-trained teacher model during the training process, alleviating the problem of source bias effectively. In addition, we design a Target-Relevant Object Localization Network (TROLN), which can mine target-related knowledge to produce two classification-free metrics (IoU and centerness). Accordingly, we implement a Domain-aware Consistency Enhancing (DCE) strategy that utilizes these two metrics to further refine classification confidences, achieving a harmonization between classification and localization in cross-domain scenarios. Extensive experiments have been conducted to manifest the effectiveness of this method, which consistently improves the strong baseline by large margins, outperforming existing alignment-based works.
CV-25-标题: Deep Learning based CNN Model for Classification and Detection of Individuals Wearing Face Mask
作者: R. Chinnaiyan, Iyyappan M, Al Raiyan Shariff A, Kondaveeti Sai, Mallikarjunaiah B M, P Bharath
备注: 8 Pages , 6 figures , 1 Table
Abstract:In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a critical demand for protective measures, with face masks emerging as a primary safeguard. The approach involves a two-fold strategy: first, recognizing the presence of a face by detecting faces, and second, identifying masks on those faces. This project utilizes deep learning to create a model that can detect face masks in real-time streaming video as well as images. Face detection, a facet of object detection, finds applications in diverse fields such as security, biometrics, and law enforcement. Various detector systems worldwide have been developed and implemented, with convolutional neural networks chosen for their superior performance accuracy and speed in object detection. Experimental results attest to the model’s excellent accuracy on test data. The primary focus of this research is to enhance security, particularly in sensitive areas. The research paper proposes a rapid image pre-processing method with masks centred on faces. Employing feature extraction and Convolutional Neural Network, the system classifies and detects individuals wearing masks. The research unfolds in three stages: image pre-processing, image cropping, and image classification, collectively contributing to the identification of masked faces. Continuous surveillance through webcams or CCTV cameras ensures constant monitoring, triggering a security alert if a person is detected without a mask.
CV-26-标题: Optimized Deep Learning Models for AUV Seabed Image Analysis
作者: Rajesh Sharma R, Akey Sungheetha, Chinnaiyan R
备注: 6 pages , 4 figures
Abstract:Using autonomous underwater vehicles, or AUVs, has completely changed how we gather data from the ocean floor. AUV innovation has advanced significantly, especially in the analysis of images, due to the increasing need for accurate and efficient seafloor mapping. This blog post provides a detailed summary and comparison of the most current advancements in AUV seafloor image processing. We will go into the realm of undersea technology, covering everything through computer and algorithmic advancements to advances in sensors and cameras. After reading this page through to the end, you will have a solid understanding of the most up-to-date techniques and tools for using AUVs to process seabed photos and how they could further our comprehension of the ocean floor
CV-27-标题: Two-Factor Authentication Approach Based on Behavior Patterns for Defeating Puppet Attacks
作者: Wenhao Wang, Guyue Li, Zhiming Chu, Haobo Li, Daniele Faccio
Abstract:Fingerprint traits are widely recognized for their unique qualities and security benefits. Despite their extensive use, fingerprint features can be vulnerable to puppet attacks, where attackers manipulate a reluctant but genuine user into completing the authentication process. Defending against such attacks is challenging due to the coexistence of a legitimate identity and an illegitimate intent. In this paper, we propose PUPGUARD, a solution designed to guard against puppet attacks. This method is based on user behavioral patterns, specifically, the user needs to press the capture device twice successively with different fingers during the authentication process. PUPGUARD leverages both the image features of fingerprints and the timing characteristics of the pressing intervals to establish two-factor authentication. More specifically, after extracting image features and timing characteristics, and performing feature selection on the image features, PUPGUARD fuses these two features into a one-dimensional feature vector, and feeds it into a one-class classifier to obtain the classification result. This two-factor authentication method emphasizes dynamic behavioral patterns during the authentication process, thereby enhancing security against puppet attacks. To assess PUPGUARD’s effectiveness, we conducted experiments on datasets collected from 31 subjects, including image features and timing characteristics. Our experimental results demonstrate that PUPGUARD achieves an impressive accuracy rate of 97.87% and a remarkably low false positive rate (FPR) of 1.89%. Furthermore, we conducted comparative experiments to validate the superiority of combining image features and timing characteristics within PUPGUARD for enhancing resistance against puppet attacks.
CV-28-标题: Single-Shot and Multi-Shot Feature Learning for Multi-Object Tracking
作者: Yizhe Li, Sanping Zhou, Zheng Qin, Le Wang, Jinjun Wang, Nanning Zheng
Abstract:Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) remains a vital component of intelligent video analysis, which aims to locate targets and maintain a consistent identity for each target throughout a video sequence. Existing works usually learn a discriminative feature representation, such as motion and appearance, to associate the detections across frames, which are easily affected by mutual occlusion and background clutter in practice. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective two-stage feature learning paradigm to jointly learn single-shot and multi-shot features for different targets, so as to achieve robust data association in the tracking process. For the detections without being associated, we design a novel single-shot feature learning module to extract discriminative features of each detection, which can efficiently associate targets between adjacent frames. For the tracklets being lost several frames, we design a novel multi-shot feature learning module to extract discriminative features of each tracklet, which can accurately refind these lost targets after a long period. Once equipped with a simple data association logic, the resulting VisualTracker can perform robust MOT based on the single-shot and multi-shot feature representations. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our method has achieved significant improvements on MOT17 and MOT20 datasets while reaching state-of-the-art performance on DanceTrack dataset.
CV-29-标题: MSE-Nets: Multi-annotated Semi-supervised Ensemble Networks for Improving Segmentation of Medical Image with Ambiguous Boundaries
作者: Shuai Wang, Tengjin Weng, Jingyi Wang, Yang Shen, Zhidong Zhao, Yixiu Liu, Pengfei Jiao, Zhiming Cheng, Yaqi Wang
Abstract:Medical image segmentation annotations exhibit variations among experts due to the ambiguous boundaries of segmented objects and backgrounds in medical images. Although using multiple annotations for each image in the fully-supervised has been extensively studied for training deep models, obtaining a large amount of multi-annotated data is challenging due to the substantial time and manpower costs required for segmentation annotations, resulting in most images lacking any annotations. To address this, we propose Multi-annotated Semi-supervised Ensemble Networks (MSE-Nets) for learning segmentation from limited multi-annotated and abundant unannotated data. Specifically, we introduce the Network Pairwise Consistency Enhancement (NPCE) module and Multi-Network Pseudo Supervised (MNPS) module to enhance MSE-Nets for the segmentation task by considering two major factors: (1) to optimize the utilization of all accessible multi-annotated data, the NPCE separates (dis)agreement annotations of multi-annotated data at the pixel level and handles agreement and disagreement annotations in different ways, (2) to mitigate the introduction of imprecise pseudo-labels, the MNPS extends the training data by leveraging consistent pseudo-labels from unannotated data. Finally, we improve confidence calibration by averaging the predictions of base networks. Experiments on the ISIC dataset show that we reduced the demand for multi-annotated data by 97.75% and narrowed the gap with the best fully-supervised baseline to just a Jaccard index of 4%. Furthermore, compared to other semi-supervised methods that rely only on a single annotation or a combined fusion approach, the comprehensive experimental results on ISIC and RIGA datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method in medical image segmentation with ambiguous boundaries.
CV-30-标题: Breaking Temporal Consistency: Generating Video Universal Adversarial Perturbations Using Image Models ICCV2023
作者: Hee-Seon Kim, Minji Son, Minbeom Kim, Myung-Joon Kwon, Changick Kim
备注: ICCV 2023
Abstract:As video analysis using deep learning models becomes more widespread, the vulnerability of such models to adversarial attacks is becoming a pressing concern. In particular, Universal Adversarial Perturbation (UAP) poses a significant threat, as a single perturbation can mislead deep learning models on entire datasets. We propose a novel video UAP using image data and image model. This enables us to take advantage of the rich image data and image model-based studies available for video applications. However, there is a challenge that image models are limited in their ability to analyze the temporal aspects of videos, which is crucial for a successful video attack. To address this challenge, we introduce the Breaking Temporal Consistency (BTC) method, which is the first attempt to incorporate temporal information into video attacks using image models. We aim to generate adversarial videos that have opposite patterns to the original. Specifically, BTC-UAP minimizes the feature similarity between neighboring frames in videos. Our approach is simple but effective at attacking unseen video models. Additionally, it is applicable to videos of varying lengths and invariant to temporal shifts. Our approach surpasses existing methods in terms of effectiveness on various datasets, including ImageNet, UCF-101, and Kinetics-400.
CV-31-标题: Dates Fruit Disease Recognition using Machine Learning
作者: Ghassen Ben Brahim, Jaafar Alghazo, Ghazanfar Latif, Khalid Alnujaidi
Abstract:Many countries such as Saudi Arabia, Morocco and Tunisia are among the top exporters and consumers of palm date fruits. Date fruit production plays a major role in the economies of the date fruit exporting countries. Date fruits are susceptible to disease just like any fruit and early detection and intervention can end up saving the produce. However, with the vast farming lands, it is nearly impossible for farmers to observe date trees on a frequent basis for early disease detection. In addition, even with human observation the process is prone to human error and increases the date fruit cost. With the recent advances in computer vision, machine learning, drone technology, and other technologies; an integrated solution can be proposed for the automatic detection of date fruit disease. In this paper, a hybrid features based method with the standard classifiers is proposed based on the extraction of Lab color features, statistical features, and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) texture features for the early detection and classification of date fruit disease. A dataset was developed for this work consisting of 871 images divided into the following classes; Healthy date, Initial stage of disease, Malnourished date, and Parasite infected. The extracted features were input to common classifiers such as the Random Forest (RF), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Naïve Bayes (NB), and Fuzzy Decision Trees (FDT). The highest average accuracy was achieved when combining the Lab, Statistical, and DWT Features.
CV-32-标题: Video-based Sequential Bayesian Homography Estimation for Soccer Field Registration
作者: Paul J. Claasen, J.P. de Villiers
备注: Submitted to Expert Systems with Applications and currently under review
Abstract:A novel Bayesian framework is proposed, which explicitly relates the homography of one video frame to the next through an affine transformation while explicitly modelling keypoint uncertainty. The literature has previously used differential homography between subsequent frames, but not in a Bayesian setting. In cases where Bayesian methods have been applied, camera motion is not adequately modelled, and keypoints are treated as deterministic. The proposed method, Bayesian Homography Inference from Tracked Keypoints (BHITK), employs a two-stage Kalman filter and significantly improves existing methods. Existing keypoint detection methods may be easily augmented with BHITK. It enables less sophisticated and less computationally expensive methods to outperform the state-of-the-art approaches in most homography evaluation metrics. Furthermore, the homography annotations of the WorldCup and TS-WorldCup datasets have been refined using a custom homography annotation tool released for public use. The refined datasets are consolidated and released as the consolidated and refined WorldCup (CARWC) dataset.
CV-33-标题: Garment Recovery with Shape and Deformation Priors
作者: Ren Li, Corentin Dumery, Benoît Guillard, Pascal Fua
Abstract:While modeling people wearing tight-fitting clothing has made great strides in recent years, loose-fitting clothing remains a challenge. We propose a method that delivers realistic garment models from real-world images, regardless of garment shape or deformation. To this end, we introduce a fitting approach that utilizes shape and deformation priors learned from synthetic data to accurately capture garment shapes and deformations, including large ones. Not only does our approach recover the garment geometry accurately, it also yields models that can be directly used by downstream applications such as animation and simulation.
CV-34-标题: Enhancing Student Engagement in Online Learning through Facial Expression Analysis and Complex Emotion Recognition using Deep Learning
作者: Rekha R Nair, Tina Babu, Pavithra K
备注: Face emotion recognition work
Abstract:In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional physical classrooms have transitioned to online environments, necessitating effective strategies to ensure sustained student engagement. A significant challenge in online teaching is the absence of real-time feedback from teachers on students learning progress. This paper introduces a novel approach employing deep learning techniques based on facial expressions to assess students engagement levels during online learning sessions. Human emotions cannot be adequately conveyed by a student using only the basic emotions, including anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise, and neutrality. To address this challenge, proposed a generation of four complex emotions such as confusion, satisfaction, disappointment, and frustration by combining the basic emotions. These complex emotions are often experienced simultaneously by students during the learning session. To depict these emotions dynamically,utilized a continuous stream of image frames instead of discrete images. The proposed work utilized a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model to categorize the fundamental emotional states of learners accurately. The proposed CNN model demonstrates strong performance, achieving a 95% accuracy in precise categorization of learner emotions.
CV-35-标题: A2XP: Towards Private Domain Generalization
作者: Geunhyeok Yu, Hyoseok Hwang
备注: 10 pages (8 pages except for references), 6 figures, 4 tables
Abstract:Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have become pivotal in various fields, especially in computer vision, outperforming previous methodologies. A critical challenge in their deployment is the bias inherent in data across different domains, such as image style, and environmental conditions, leading to domain gaps. This necessitates techniques for learning general representations from biased training data, known as domain generalization. This paper presents Attend to eXpert Prompts (A2XP), a novel approach for domain generalization that preserves the privacy and integrity of the network architecture. A2XP consists of two phases: Expert Adaptation and Domain Generalization. In the first phase, prompts for each source domain are optimized to guide the model towards the optimal direction. In the second phase, two embedder networks are trained to effectively amalgamate these expert prompts, aiming for an optimal output. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that A2XP achieves state-of-the-art results over existing non-private domain generalization methods. The experimental results validate that the proposed approach not only tackles the domain generalization challenge in DNNs but also offers a privacy-preserving, efficient solution to the broader field of computer vision.
CV-36-标题: High-fidelity Person-centric Subject-to-Image Synthesis
作者: Yibin Wang, Weizhong Zhang, Jianwei Zheng, Cheng Jin
Abstract:Current subject-driven image generation methods encounter significant challenges in person-centric image generation. The reason is that they learn the semantic scene and person generation by fine-tuning a common pre-trained diffusion, which involves an irreconcilable training imbalance. Precisely, to generate realistic persons, they need to sufficiently tune the pre-trained model, which inevitably causes the model to forget the rich semantic scene prior and makes scene generation over-fit to the training data. Moreover, even with sufficient fine-tuning, these methods can still not generate high-fidelity persons since joint learning of the scene and person generation also lead to quality compromise. In this paper, we propose Face-diffuser, an effective collaborative generation pipeline to eliminate the above training imbalance and quality compromise. Specifically, we first develop two specialized pre-trained diffusion models, i.e., Text-driven Diffusion Model (TDM) and Subject-augmented Diffusion Model (SDM), for scene and person generation, respectively. The sampling process is divided into three sequential stages, i.e., semantic scene construction, subject-scene fusion, and subject enhancement. The first and last stages are performed by TDM and SDM respectively. The subject-scene fusion stage, that is the collaboration achieved through a novel and highly effective mechanism, Saliency-adaptive Noise Fusion (SNF). Specifically, it is based on our key observation that there exists a robust link between classifier-free guidance responses and the saliency of generated images. In each time step, SNF leverages the unique strengths of each model and allows for the spatial blending of predicted noises from both models automatically in a saliency-aware manner. Extensive experiments confirm the impressive effectiveness and robustness of the Face-diffuser.
CV-37-标题: Learning transformer -based heterogeneously salient graph representation for multimodal fusion classification of hyperspectral image and LiDAR data
作者: Jiaqi Yang, Bo Du, Liangpei Zhang
Abstract:Data collected by different modalities can provide a wealth of complementary information, such as hyperspectral image (HSI) to offer rich spectral-spatial properties, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to provide structural information about the Earth’s surface, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to cover altitude information about ground elevation. Therefore, a natural idea is to combine multimodal images for refined and accurate land-cover interpretation. Although many efforts have been attempted to achieve multi-source remote sensing image classification, there are still three issues as follows: 1) indiscriminate feature representation without sufficiently considering modal heterogeneity, 2) abundant features and complex computations associated with modeling long-range dependencies, and 3) overfitting phenomenon caused by sparsely labeled samples. To overcome the above barriers, a transformer-based heterogeneously salient graph representation (THSGR) approach is proposed in this paper. First, a multimodal heterogeneous graph encoder is presented to encode distinctively non-Euclidean structural features from heterogeneous data. Then, a self-attention-free multi-convolutional modulator is designed for effective and efficient long-term dependency modeling. Finally, a mean forward is put forward in order to avoid overfitting. Based on the above structures, the proposed model is able to break through modal gaps to obtain differentiated graph representation with competitive time cost, even for a small fraction of training samples. Experiments and analyses on three benchmark datasets with various state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods show the performance of the proposed approach.
CV-38-标题: Shifting to Machine Supervision: Annotation-Efficient Semi and Self-Supervised Learning for Automatic Medical Image Segmentation and Classification
作者: Pranav Singh, Raviteja Chukkapalli, Shravan Chaudhari, Luoyao Chen, Mei Chen, Jinqian Pan, Craig Smuda, Jacopo Cirrone
备注: Seventeen pages (incl. references), five figures, and one table. (Under Review)
Abstract:Advancements in clinical treatment and research are limited by supervised learning techniques that rely on large amounts of annotated data, an expensive task requiring many hours of clinical specialists’ time. In this paper, we propose using self-supervised and semi-supervised learning. These techniques perform an auxiliary task that is label-free, scaling up machine-supervision is easier compared with fully-supervised techniques. This paper proposes S4MI (Self-Supervision and Semi-Supervision for Medical Imaging), our pipeline to leverage advances in self and semi-supervision learning. We benchmark them on three medical imaging datasets to analyze their efficacy for classification and segmentation. This advancement in self-supervised learning with 10% annotation performed better than 100% annotation for the classification of most datasets. The semi-supervised approach yielded favorable outcomes for segmentation, outperforming the fully-supervised approach by using 50% fewer labels in all three datasets.
CV-39-标题: Nonparametric Teaching for Multiple Learners NEURIPS2023
作者: Chen Zhang, Xiaofeng Cao, Weiyang Liu, Ivor Tsang, James Kwok
备注: NeurIPS 2023 (31 pages, 20 figures)
Abstract:We study the problem of teaching multiple learners simultaneously in the nonparametric iterative teaching setting, where the teacher iteratively provides examples to the learner for accelerating the acquisition of a target concept. This problem is motivated by the gap between current single-learner teaching setting and the real-world scenario of human instruction where a teacher typically imparts knowledge to multiple students. Under the new problem formulation, we introduce a novel framework – Multi-learner Nonparametric Teaching (MINT). In MINT, the teacher aims to instruct multiple learners, with each learner focusing on learning a scalar-valued target model. To achieve this, we frame the problem as teaching a vector-valued target model and extend the target model space from a scalar-valued reproducing kernel Hilbert space used in single-learner scenarios to a vector-valued space. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MINT offers significant teaching speed-up over repeated single-learner teaching, particularly when the multiple learners can communicate with each other. Lastly, we conduct extensive experiments to validate the practicality and efficiency of MINT.
CV-40-标题: BiHRNet: A Binary high-resolution network for Human Pose Estimation
作者: Zhicheng Zhang, Xueyao Sun, Yonghao Dang, Jianqin Yin
备注: 12 pages, 6 figures
Abstract:Human Pose Estimation (HPE) plays a crucial role in computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to deploy state-of-the-art models on resouce-limited devices due to the high computational costs of the networks. In this work, a binary human pose estimator named BiHRNet(Binary HRNet) is proposed, whose weights and activations are expressed as \pm 1. BiHRNet retains the keypoint extraction ability of HRNet, while using fewer computing resources by adapting binary neural network (BNN). In order to reduce the accuracy drop caused by network binarization, two categories of techniques are proposed in this work. For optimizing the training process for binary pose estimator, we propose a new loss function combining KL divergence loss with AWing loss, which makes the binary network obtain more comprehensive output distribution from its real-valued counterpart to reduce information loss caused by binarization. For designing more binarization-friendly structures, we propose a new information reconstruction bottleneck called IR Bottleneck to retain more information in the initial stage of the network. In addition, we also propose a multi-scale basic block called MS-Block for information retention. Our work has less computation cost with few precision drop. Experimental results demonstrate that BiHRNet achieves a PCKh of 87.9 on the MPII dataset, which outperforms all binary pose estimation networks. On the challenging of COCO dataset, the proposed method enables the binary neural network to achieve 70.8 mAP, which is better than most tested lightweight full-precision networks.
CV-41-标题: Hierarchical Pruning of Deep Ensembles with Focal Diversity
作者: Yanzhao Wu, Ka-Ho Chow, Wenqi Wei, Ling Liu
备注: To appear on ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
Abstract:Deep neural network ensembles combine the wisdom of multiple deep neural networks to improve the generalizability and robustness over individual networks. It has gained increasing popularity to study deep ensemble techniques in the deep learning community. Some mission-critical applications utilize a large number of deep neural networks to form deep ensembles to achieve desired accuracy and resilience, which introduces high time and space costs for ensemble execution. However, it still remains a critical challenge whether a small subset of the entire deep ensemble can achieve the same or better generalizability and how to effectively identify these small deep ensembles for improving the space and time efficiency of ensemble execution. This paper presents a novel deep ensemble pruning approach, which can efficiently identify smaller deep ensembles and provide higher ensemble accuracy than the entire deep ensemble of a large number of member networks. Our hierarchical ensemble pruning approach (HQ) leverages three novel ensemble pruning techniques. First, we show that the focal diversity metrics can accurately capture the complementary capacity of the member networks of an ensemble, which can guide ensemble pruning. Second, we design a focal diversity based hierarchical pruning approach, which will iteratively find high quality deep ensembles with low cost and high accuracy. Third, we develop a focal diversity consensus method to integrate multiple focal diversity metrics to refine ensemble pruning results, where smaller deep ensembles can be effectively identified to offer high accuracy, high robustness and high efficiency. Evaluated using popular benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical ensemble pruning approach can effectively identify high quality deep ensembles with better generalizability while being more time and space efficient in ensemble decision making.
CV-42-标题: SSASS: Semi-Supervised Approach for Stenosis Segmentation MICCAI2023
作者: In Kyu Lee, Junsup Shin, Yong-Hee Lee, Jonghoe Ku, Hyun-Woo Kim
备注: MICCAI 2023 Conference ARCADE Challenge
Abstract:Coronary artery stenosis is a critical health risk, and its precise identification in Coronary Angiography (CAG) can significantly aid medical practitioners in accurately evaluating the severity of a patient’s condition. The complexity of coronary artery structures combined with the inherent noise in X-ray images poses a considerable challenge to this task. To tackle these obstacles, we introduce a semi-supervised approach for cardiovascular stenosis segmentation. Our strategy begins with data augmentation, specifically tailored to replicate the structural characteristics of coronary arteries. We then apply a pseudo-label-based semi-supervised learning technique that leverages the data generated through our augmentation process. Impressively, our approach demonstrated an exceptional performance in the Automatic Region-based Coronary Artery Disease diagnostics using x-ray angiography imagEs (ARCADE) Stenosis Detection Algorithm challenge by utilizing a single model instead of relying on an ensemble of multiple models. This success emphasizes our method’s capability and efficiency in providing an automated solution for accurately assessing stenosis severity from medical imaging data.
CV-43-标题: Physics-Enhanced Multi-fidelity Learning for Optical Surface Imprint NEURIPS2023
作者: Yongchao Chen
备注: 8 pages, 4 figures, NeurIPS 2023 Workshop on Adaptive Experimental Design and Active Learning in the Real World
Abstract:Human fingerprints serve as one unique and powerful characteristic for each person, from which policemen can recognize the identity. Similar to humans, many natural bodies and intrinsic mechanical qualities can also be uniquely identified from surface characteristics. To measure the elasto-plastic properties of one material, one formally sharp indenter is pushed into the measured body under constant force and retracted, leaving a unique residual imprint of the minute size from several micrometers to nanometers. However, one great challenge is how to map the optical image of this residual imprint into the real wanted mechanical properties, i.e., the tensile force curve. In this paper, we propose a novel method to use multi-fidelity neural networks (MFNN) to solve this inverse problem. We first actively train the NN model via pure simulation data, and then bridge the sim-to-real gap via transfer learning. The most innovative part is that we use NN to dig out the unknown physics and also implant the known physics into the transfer learning framework, thus highly improving the model stability and decreasing the data requirement. This work serves as one great example of applying machine learning into the real experimental research, especially under the constraints of data limitation and fidelity variance.
CV-44-标题: Interpretable pap smear cell representation for cervical cancer screening
作者: Yu Ando, Nora Jee-Young Park and, Gun Oh Chong, Seokhwan Ko, Donghyeon Lee, Junghwan Cho, Hyungsoo Han
备注: 20 pages, 6 figures
Abstract:Screening is critical for prevention and early detection of cervical cancer but it is time-consuming and laborious. Supervised deep convolutional neural networks have been developed to automate pap smear screening and the results are promising. However, the interest in using only normal samples to train deep neural networks has increased owing to class imbalance problems and high-labeling costs that are both prevalent in healthcare. In this study, we introduce a method to learn explainable deep cervical cell representations for pap smear cytology images based on one class classification using variational autoencoders. Findings demonstrate that a score can be calculated for cell abnormality without training models with abnormal samples and localize abnormality to interpret our results with a novel metric based on absolute difference in cross entropy in agglomerative clustering. The best model that discriminates squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from normals gives 0.908 ± 0.003 area under operating characteristic curve (AUC) and one that discriminates high-grade epithelial lesion (HSIL) 0.920 ± 0.002 AUC. Compared to other clustering methods, our method enhances the V-measure and yields higher homogeneity scores, which more effectively isolate different abnormality regions, aiding in the interpretation of our results. Evaluation using in-house and additional open dataset show that our model can discriminate abnormality without the need of additional training of deep models.
CV-45-标题: Vision meets mmWave Radar: 3D Object Perception Benchmark for Autonomous Driving
作者: Yizhou Wang, Jen-Hao Cheng, Jui-Te Huang, Sheng-Yao Kuan, Qiqian Fu, Chiming Ni, Shengyu Hao, Gaoang Wang, Guanbin Xing, Hui Liu, Jenq-Neng Hwang
Abstract:Sensor fusion is crucial for an accurate and robust perception system on autonomous vehicles. Most existing datasets and perception solutions focus on fusing cameras and LiDAR. However, the collaboration between camera and radar is significantly under-exploited. The incorporation of rich semantic information from the camera, and reliable 3D information from the radar can potentially achieve an efficient, cheap, and portable solution for 3D object perception tasks. It can also be robust to different lighting or all-weather driving scenarios due to the capability of mmWave radars. In this paper, we introduce the CRUW3D dataset, including 66K synchronized and well-calibrated camera, radar, and LiDAR frames in various driving scenarios. Unlike other large-scale autonomous driving datasets, our radar data is in the format of radio frequency (RF) tensors that contain not only 3D location information but also spatio-temporal semantic information. This kind of radar format can enable machine learning models to generate more reliable object perception results after interacting and fusing the information or features between the camera and radar.
CV-46-标题: Segment Anything in Defect Detection
作者: Bozhen Hu, Bin Gao, Cheng Tan, Tongle Wu, Stan Z. Li
Abstract:Defect detection plays a crucial role in infrared non-destructive testing systems, offering non-contact, safe, and efficient inspection capabilities. However, challenges such as low resolution, high noise, and uneven heating in infrared thermal images hinder comprehensive and accurate defect detection. In this study, we propose DefectSAM, a novel approach for segmenting defects on highly noisy thermal images based on the widely adopted model, Segment Anything (SAM)\citekirillov2023segany. Harnessing the power of a meticulously curated dataset generated through labor-intensive lab experiments and valuable prompts from experienced experts, DefectSAM surpasses existing state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms and achieves significant improvements in defect detection rates. Notably, DefectSAM excels in detecting weaker and smaller defects on complex and irregular surfaces, reducing the occurrence of missed detections and providing more accurate defect size estimations. Experimental studies conducted on various materials have validated the effectiveness of our solutions in defect detection, which hold significant potential to expedite the evolution of defect detection tools, enabling enhanced inspection capabilities and accuracy in defect identification.
CV-47-标题: The Analysis and Extraction of Structure from Organizational Charts
作者: Nikhil Manali, David Doermann, Mahesh Desai
Abstract:Organizational charts, also known as org charts, are critical representations of an organization’s structure and the hierarchical relationships between its components and positions. However, manually extracting information from org charts can be error-prone and time-consuming. To solve this, we present an automated and end-to-end approach that uses computer vision, deep learning, and natural language processing techniques. Additionally, we propose a metric to evaluate the completeness and hierarchical accuracy of the extracted information. This approach has the potential to improve organizational restructuring and resource utilization by providing a clear and concise representation of the organizational structure. Our study lays a foundation for further research on the topic of hierarchical chart analysis.
CV-48-标题: Stella Nera: Achieving 161 TOp/s/W with Multiplier-free DNN Acceleration based on Approximate Matrix Multiplication
作者: Jannis Schönleber, Lukas Cavigelli, Renzo Andri, Matteo Perotti, Luca Benini
备注: 6 pages, 7 figures, preprint under review
Abstract:From classical HPC to deep learning, MatMul is at the heart of today’s computing. The recent Maddness method approximates MatMul without the need for multiplication by using a hash-based version of product quantization (PQ) indexing into a look-up table (LUT). Stella Nera is the first Maddness accelerator and it achieves 15x higher area efficiency (GMAC/s/mm^2) and more than 25x higher energy efficiency (TMAC/s/W) than direct MatMul accelerators implemented in the same technology. The hash function is a decision tree, which allows for an efficient hardware implementation as the multiply-accumulate operations are replaced by decision tree passes and LUT lookups. The entire Maddness MatMul can be broken down into parts that allow an effective implementation with small computing units and memories, allowing it to reach extreme efficiency while remaining generically applicable for MatMul tasks. In a commercial 14nm technology and scaled to 3nm, we achieve an energy efficiency of 161 TOp/s/W@0.55V with a Top-1 accuracy on CIFAR-10 of more than 92.5% using ResNet9.
CV-49-标题: Towards Improving Robustness Against Common Corruptions using Mixture of Class Specific Experts
作者: Shashank Kotyan, Danilo Vasconcellos Vargas
备注: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2311.07928; text overlap with arXiv:1903.12261 by other authors
Abstract:Neural networks have demonstrated significant accuracy across various domains, yet their vulnerability to subtle input alterations remains a persistent challenge. Conventional methods like data augmentation, while effective to some extent, fall short in addressing unforeseen corruptions, limiting the adaptability of neural networks in real-world scenarios. In response, this paper introduces a novel paradigm known as the Mixture of Class-Specific Expert Architecture. The approach involves disentangling feature learning for individual classes, offering a nuanced enhancement in scalability and overall performance. By training dedicated network segments for each class and subsequently aggregating their outputs, the proposed architecture aims to mitigate vulnerabilities associated with common neural network structures. The study underscores the importance of comprehensive evaluation methodologies, advocating for the incorporation of benchmarks like the common corruptions benchmark. This inclusion provides nuanced insights into the vulnerabilities of neural networks, especially concerning their generalization capabilities and robustness to unforeseen distortions. The research aligns with the broader objective of advancing the development of highly robust learning systems capable of nuanced reasoning across diverse and challenging real-world scenarios. Through this contribution, the paper aims to foster a deeper understanding of neural network limitations and proposes a practical approach to enhance their resilience in the face of evolving and unpredictable conditions.
CV-50-标题: I&S-ViT: An Inclusive & Stable Method for Pushing the Limit of Post-Training ViTs Quantization
作者: Yunshan Zhong, Jiawei Hu, Mingbao Lin, Mengzhao Chen, Rongrong Ji
Abstract:Albeit the scalable performance of vision transformers (ViTs), the dense computational costs (training & inference) undermine their position in industrial applications. Post-training quantization (PTQ), tuning ViTs with a tiny dataset and running in a low-bit format, well addresses the cost issue but unluckily bears more performance drops in lower-bit cases. In this paper, we introduce I&S-ViT, a novel method that regulates the PTQ of ViTs in an inclusive and stable fashion. I&S-ViT first identifies two issues in the PTQ of ViTs: (1) Quantization inefficiency in the prevalent log2 quantizer for post-Softmax activations; (2) Rugged and magnified loss landscape in coarse-grained quantization granularity for post-LayerNorm activations. Then, I&S-ViT addresses these issues by introducing: (1) A novel shift-uniform-log2 quantizer (SULQ) that incorporates a shift mechanism followed by uniform quantization to achieve both an inclusive domain representation and accurate distribution approximation; (2) A three-stage smooth optimization strategy (SOS) that amalgamates the strengths of channel-wise and layer-wise quantization to enable stable learning. Comprehensive evaluations across diverse vision tasks validate I&S-ViT’ superiority over existing PTQ of ViTs methods, particularly in low-bit scenarios. For instance, I&S-ViT elevates the performance of 3-bit ViT-B by an impressive 50.68%.
CV-51-标题: UnifiedVision GPT : Streamlining Vision-Oriented AI through Generalized Multimodal Framework
作者: Chris Kelly, Luhui Hu, Cindy Yang, Yu Tian, Deshun Yang, Bang Yang, Zaoshan Huang, Zihao Li, Yuexian Zou
备注: 9 pages, 29 figures
Abstract:In the current landscape of artificial intelligence, foundation models serve as the bedrock for advancements in both language and vision domains. OpenAI GPT-4 has emerged as the pinnacle in large language models (LLMs), while the computer vision (CV) domain boasts a plethora of state-of-the-art (SOTA) models such as Meta’s SAM and DINO, and YOLOS. However, the financial and computational burdens of training new models from scratch remain a significant barrier to progress. In response to this challenge, we introduce UnifiedVisionGPT, a novel framework designed to consolidate and automate the integration of SOTA vision models, thereby facilitating the development of vision-oriented AI. UnifiedVisionGPT distinguishes itself through four key features: (1) provides a versatile multimodal framework adaptable to a wide range of applications, building upon the strengths of multimodal foundation models; (2) seamlessly integrates various SOTA vision models to create a comprehensive multimodal platform, capitalizing on the best components of each model; (3) prioritizes vision-oriented AI, ensuring a more rapid progression in the CV domain compared to the current trajectory of LLMs; and (4) introduces automation in the selection of SOTA vision models, generating optimal results based on diverse multimodal inputs such as text prompts and images. This paper outlines the architecture and capabilities of UnifiedVisionGPT, demonstrating its potential to revolutionize the field of computer vision through enhanced efficiency, versatility, generalization, and performance. Our implementation, along with the unified multimodal framework and comprehensive dataset, is made publicly available at this https URL.
CV-52-标题: MetaDreamer: Efficient Text-to-3D Creation With Disentangling Geometry and Texture
作者: Lincong Feng, Muyu Wang, Maoyu Wang, Kuo Xu, Xiaoli Liu
备注: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2306.17843, arXiv:2209.14988 by other authors
Abstract:Generative models for 3D object synthesis have seen significant advancements with the incorporation of prior knowledge distilled from 2D diffusion models. Nevertheless, challenges persist in the form of multi-view geometric inconsistencies and slow generation speeds within the existing 3D synthesis frameworks. This can be attributed to two factors: firstly, the deficiency of abundant geometric a priori knowledge in optimization, and secondly, the entanglement issue between geometry and texture in conventional 3D generation this http URL response, we introduce MetaDreammer, a two-stage optimization approach that leverages rich 2D and 3D prior knowledge. In the first stage, our emphasis is on optimizing the geometric representation to ensure multi-view consistency and accuracy of 3D objects. In the second stage, we concentrate on fine-tuning the geometry and optimizing the texture, thereby achieving a more refined 3D object. Through leveraging 2D and 3D prior knowledge in two stages, respectively, we effectively mitigate the interdependence between geometry and texture. MetaDreamer establishes clear optimization objectives for each stage, resulting in significant time savings in the 3D generation process. Ultimately, MetaDreamer can generate high-quality 3D objects based on textual prompts within 20 minutes, and to the best of our knowledge, it is the most efficient text-to-3D generation method. Furthermore, we introduce image control into the process, enhancing the controllability of 3D generation. Extensive empirical evidence confirms that our method is not only highly efficient but also achieves a quality level that is at the forefront of current state-of-the-art 3D generation techniques.
CV-53-标题: Video-LLaVA: Learning United Visual Representation by Alignment Before Projection
作者: Bin Lin, Bin Zhu, Yang Ye, Munan Ning, Peng Jin, Li Yuan
Abstract:The Large Vision-Language Model (LVLM) has enhanced the performance of various downstream tasks in visual-language understanding. Most existing approaches encode images and videos into separate feature spaces, which are then fed as inputs to large language models. However, due to the lack of unified tokenization for images and videos, namely misalignment before projection, it becomes challenging for a Large Language Model (LLM) to learn multi-modal interactions from several poor projection layers. In this work, we unify visual representation into the language feature space to advance the foundational LLM towards a unified LVLM. As a result, we establish a simple but robust LVLM baseline, Video-LLaVA, which learns from a mixed dataset of images and videos, mutually enhancing each other. Video-LLaVA achieves superior performances on a broad range of 9 image benchmarks across 5 image question-answering datasets and 4 image benchmark toolkits. Additionally, our Video-LLaVA also outperforms Video-ChatGPT by 5.8%, 9.9%, 18.6%, and 10.1% on MSRVTT, MSVD, TGIF, and ActivityNet, respectively. Notably, extensive experiments demonstrate that Video-LLaVA mutually benefits images and videos within a unified visual representation, outperforming models designed specifically for images or videos.
CV-54-标题: Slide-SAM: Medical SAM Meets Sliding Window
作者: Quan Quan, Fenghe Tang, Zikang Xu, Heqin Zhu, S.Kevin Zhou
Abstract:Segment Anything Model (SAM) achieves remarkable results in 2D image segmentation of natural images. However, the huge gap between medical images and natural images prevents it directly applied to medical image segmentation tasks. Especially in 3D medical image, SAM cannot learn the contextual relationship between slices, which limites application in real scenarios. In addition, recent research shows that applying 2D SAM to 3D images requires prompting the entire volume, which is time and label comsuming. In order to solve the above problems, we introduced Slide-SAM which extended SAM to 3D medical images. Specifically, you only need to use a single slice prompt to segement the entire volume, which greatly reduces the prompt workload for professionals. Secondly, unlike traditional 3D medical image segmentation, we are free from the influence of computing resources and can still use high resolution (H \times W = 1024 \times 1024) for training in 3D images to achieve optimal learning for small targets. This is to combine the entire 3D volume is beyond the reach of training. Finally, we collected a large number of 3D images from large-scale 3D public and private datasets, and extended SAM to 3D medical image segmentation involving bounding box and point prompts. Finally, we perform a comprehensive evaluation and analysis investigating the performance of Slide-SAM in medical image segmentation of different modalities, anatomy, and organs. We have verified Slide-SAM’s segmentation capabilities on multiple datasets, achieving the most advanced 3D segmentation performance while maintaining the minimum prompt. Code will be open source soon.
CV-55-标题: Wildfire Smoke Detection with Cross Contrast Patch Embedding
作者: Chong Wang, Cheng Xu, Adeel Akram, Zhilin Shan, Qixing Zhang
Abstract:The Transformer-based deep networks have increasingly shown significant advantages over CNNs. Some existing work has applied it in the field of wildfire recognition or detection. However, we observed that the vanilla Transformer is not friendly for extracting smoke features. Because low-level information such as color, transparency and texture is very important for smoke recognition, and transformer pays more attention to the semantic relevance between middle- or high-level features, and is not sensitive to the subtle changes of low-level features along the space. To solve this problem, we propose the Cross Contrast Patch Embedding(CCPE) module based on the Swin Transformer, which uses the multi-scales spatial frequency contrast information in both vertical and horizontal directions to improve the discrimination of the network on the underlying details. The fuzzy boundary of smoke makes the positive and negative label assignment for instances in a dilemma, which is another challenge for wildfires detection. To solve this problem, a Separable Negative Sampling Mechanism(SNSM) is proposed. By using two different negative instance sampling strategies on positive images and negative images respectively, the problem of supervision signal confusion caused by label diversity in the process of network training is alleviated. This paper also releases the RealFire Test, the largest real wildfire test set so far, to evaluate the proposed method and promote future research. It contains 50,535 images from 3,649 video clips. The proposed method has been extensively tested and evaluated on RealFire Test dataset, and has a significant performance improvement compared with the baseline detection models.
CV-56-标题: Smart Traffic Management of Vehicles using Faster R-CNN based Deep Learning Method
作者: Arindam Chaudhuri
备注: Book Chapter
Abstract:With constant growth of civilization and modernization of cities all across the world since past few centuries smart traffic management of vehicles is one of the most sorted after problem by research community. It is a challenging problem in computer vision and artificial intelligence domain. Smart traffic management basically involves segmentation of vehicles, estimation of traffic density and tracking of vehicles. The vehicle segmentation from traffic videos helps realization of niche applications such as monitoring of speed and estimation of traffic. When occlusions, background with clutters and traffic with density variations are present, this problem becomes more intractable in nature. Keeping this motivation in this research work, we investigate Faster R-CNN based deep learning method towards segmentation of vehicles. This problem is addressed in four steps viz minimization with adaptive background model, Faster R-CNN based subnet operation, Faster R-CNN initial refinement and result optimization with extended topological active nets. The computational framework uses ideas of adaptive background modeling. It also addresses shadow and illumination related issues. Higher segmentation accuracy is achieved through topological active net deformable models. The topological and extended topological active nets help to achieve stated deformations. Mesh deformation is achieved with minimization of energy. The segmentation accuracy is improved with modified version of extended topological active net. The experimental results demonstrate superiority of this computational framework
CV-57-标题: Astronomical Images Quality Assessment with Automated Machine Learning
作者: Olivier Parisot, Pierrick Bruneau, Patrik Hitzelberger
备注: 8 pages, accepted at DATA2024
Abstract:Electronically Assisted Astronomy consists in capturing deep sky images with a digital camera coupled to a telescope to display views of celestial objects that would have been invisible through direct observation. This practice generates a large quantity of data, which may then be enhanced with dedicated image editing software after observation sessions. In this study, we show how Image Quality Assessment can be useful for automatically rating astronomical images, and we also develop a dedicated model by using Automated Machine Learning.
CV-58-标题: Phase Guided Light Field for Spatial-Depth High Resolution 3D Imaging
作者: Geyou Zhang, Ce Zhu, Kai Liu, Yipeng Liu
Abstract:On 3D imaging, light field cameras typically are of single shot, and however, they heavily suffer from low spatial resolution and depth accuracy. In this paper, by employing an optical projector to project a group of single high-frequency phase-shifted sinusoid patterns, we propose a phase guided light field algorithm to significantly improve both the spatial and depth resolutions for off-the-shelf light field cameras. First, for correcting the axial aberrations caused by the main lens of our light field camera, we propose a deformed cone model to calibrate our structured light field system. Second, over wrapped phases computed from patterned images, we propose a stereo matching algorithm, i.e. phase guided sum of absolute difference, to robustly obtain the correspondence for each pair of neighbored two lenslets. Finally, by introducing a virtual camera according to the basic geometrical optics of light field imaging, we propose a reorganization strategy to reconstruct 3D point clouds with spatial-depth high resolution. Experimental results show that, compared with the state-of-the-art active light field methods, the proposed reconstructs 3D point clouds with a spatial resolution of 1280 \times 720 with factors 10 \times increased, while maintaining the same high depth resolution and needing merely a single group of high-frequency patterns.
CV-59-标题: End-to-end autoencoding architecture for the simultaneous generation of medical images and corresponding segmentation masks
作者: Aghiles Kebaili, Jérôme Lapuyade-Lahorgue, Pierre Vera, Su Ruan
Abstract:Despite the increasing use of deep learning in medical image segmentation, acquiring sufficient training data remains a challenge in the medical field. In response, data augmentation techniques have been proposed; however, the generation of diverse and realistic medical images and their corresponding masks remains a difficult task, especially when working with insufficient training sets. To address these limitations, we present an end-to-end architecture based on the Hamiltonian Variational Autoencoder (HVAE). This approach yields an improved posterior distribution approximation compared to traditional Variational Autoencoders (VAE), resulting in higher image generation quality. Our method outperforms generative adversarial architectures under data-scarce conditions, showcasing enhancements in image quality and precise tumor mask synthesis. We conduct experiments on two publicly available datasets, MICCAI’s Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge (BRATS), and Head and Neck Tumor Segmentation Challenge (HECKTOR), demonstrating the effectiveness of our method on different medical imaging modalities.
CV-60-标题: Correlation-Distance Graph Learning for Treatment Response Prediction from rs-fMRI ICONIP
作者: Xiatian Zhang, Sisi Zheng, Hubert P. H. Shum, Haozheng Zhang, Nan Song, Mingkang Song, Hongxiao Jia
备注: Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP)
Abstract:Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) functional connectivity (FC) analysis provides valuable insights into the relationships between different brain regions and their potential implications for neurological or psychiatric disorders. However, specific design efforts to predict treatment response from rs-fMRI remain limited due to difficulties in understanding the current brain state and the underlying mechanisms driving the observed patterns, which limited the clinical application of rs-fMRI. To overcome that, we propose a graph learning framework that captures comprehensive features by integrating both correlation and distance-based similarity measures under a contrastive loss. This approach results in a more expressive framework that captures brain dynamic features at different scales and enables more accurate prediction of treatment response. Our experiments on the chronic pain and depersonalization disorder datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms current methods in different scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explore the integration of distance-based and correlation-based neural similarity into graph learning for treatment response prediction.
CV-61-标题: Deep Residual CNN for Multi-Class Chest Infection Diagnosis
作者: Ryan Donghan Kwon, Dohyun Lim, Yoonha Lee, Seung Won Lee
Abstract:The advent of deep learning has significantly propelled the capabilities of automated medical image diagnosis, providing valuable tools and resources in the realm of healthcare and medical diagnostics. This research delves into the development and evaluation of a Deep Residual Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the multi-class diagnosis of chest infections, utilizing chest X-ray images. The implemented model, trained and validated on a dataset amalgamated from diverse sources, demonstrated a robust overall accuracy of 93%. However, nuanced disparities in performance across different classes, particularly Fibrosis, underscored the complexity and challenges inherent in automated medical image diagnosis. The insights derived pave the way for future research, focusing on enhancing the model’s proficiency in classifying conditions that present more subtle and nuanced visual features in the images, as well as optimizing and refining the model architecture and training process. This paper provides a comprehensive exploration into the development, implementation, and evaluation of the model, offering insights and directions for future research and development in the field.
CV-62-标题: Pseudo Label-Guided Data Fusion and Output Consistency for Semi-Supervised Medical Image Segmentation
作者: Tao Wang, Yuanbin Chen, Xinlin Zhang, Yuanbo Zhou, Junlin Lan, Bizhe Bai, Tao Tan, Min Du, Qinquan Gao, Tong Tong
Abstract:Supervised learning algorithms based on Convolutional Neural Networks have become the benchmark for medical image segmentation tasks, but their effectiveness heavily relies on a large amount of labeled data. However, annotating medical image datasets is a laborious and time-consuming process. Inspired by semi-supervised algorithms that use both labeled and unlabeled data for training, we propose the PLGDF framework, which builds upon the mean teacher network for segmenting medical images with less annotation. We propose a novel pseudo-label utilization scheme, which combines labeled and unlabeled data to augment the dataset effectively. Additionally, we enforce the consistency between different scales in the decoder module of the segmentation network and propose a loss function suitable for evaluating the consistency. Moreover, we incorporate a sharpening operation on the predicted results, further enhancing the accuracy of the segmentation. Extensive experiments on three publicly available datasets demonstrate that the PLGDF framework can largely improve performance by incorporating the unlabeled data. Meanwhile, our framework yields superior performance compared to six state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning methods. The codes of this study are available at this https URL.
CV-63-标题: Cooperative Perception with Learning-Based V2V communications
作者: Chenguang Liu, Yunfei Chen, Jianjun Chen, Ryan Payton, Michael Riley, Shuang-Hua Yang
Abstract:Cooperative perception has been widely used in autonomous driving to alleviate the inherent limitation of single automated vehicle perception. To enable cooperation, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication plays an indispensable role. This work analyzes the performance of cooperative perception accounting for communications channel impairments. Different fusion methods and channel impairments are evaluated. A new late fusion scheme is proposed to leverage the robustness of intermediate features. In order to compress the data size incurred by cooperation, a convolution neural network-based autoencoder is adopted. Numerical results demonstrate that intermediate fusion is more robust to channel impairments than early fusion and late fusion, when the SNR is greater than 0 dB. Also, the proposed fusion scheme outperforms the conventional late fusion using detection outputs, and autoencoder provides a good compromise between detection accuracy and bandwidth usage.
CV-64-标题: Leveraging Multimodal Fusion for Enhanced Diagnosis of Multiple Retinal Diseases in Ultra-wide OCTA
作者: Hao Wei, Peilun Shi, Guitao Bai, Minqing Zhang, Shuangle Li, Wu Yuan
Abstract:Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography (UW-OCTA) is an emerging imaging technique that offers significant advantages over traditional OCTA by providing an exceptionally wide scanning range of up to 24 x 20 mm^2 , covering both the anterior and posterior regions of the retina. However, the currently accessible UW-OCTA datasets suffer from limited comprehensive hierarchical information and corresponding disease annotations. To address this limitation, we have curated the pioneering M3OCTA dataset, which is the first multimodal (i.e., multilayer), multi-disease, and widest field-of-view UW-OCTA dataset. Furthermore, the effective utilization of multi-layer ultra-wide ocular vasculature information from UW-OCTA remains underdeveloped. To tackle this challenge, we propose the first cross-modal fusion framework that leverages multi-modal information for diagnosing multiple diseases. Through extensive experiments conducted on our openly available M3OCTA dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of our method, both in fixed and varying modalities settings. The construction of the M3OCTA dataset, the first multimodal OCTA dataset encompassing multiple diseases, aims to advance research in the ophthalmic image analysis community.
CV-65-标题: TransONet: Automatic Segmentation of Vasculature in Computed Tomographic Angiograms Using Deep Learning
作者: Alireza Bagheri Rajeoni, Breanna Pederson, Ali Firooz, Hamed Abdollahi, Andrew K. Smith, Daniel G. Clair, Susan M. Lessner, Homayoun Valafar
备注: Accepted for the 2023 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI), Las Vegas, USA
Abstract:Pathological alterations in the human vascular system underlie many chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and aneurysms. However, manually analyzing diagnostic images of the vascular system, such as computed tomographic angiograms (CTAs) is a time-consuming and tedious process. To address this issue, we propose a deep learning model to segment the vascular system in CTA images of patients undergoing surgery for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Our study focused on accurately segmenting the vascular system (1) from the descending thoracic aorta to the iliac bifurcation and (2) from the descending thoracic aorta to the knees in CTA images using deep learning techniques. Our approach achieved average Dice accuracies of 93.5% and 80.64% in test dataset for (1) and (2), respectively, highlighting its high accuracy and potential clinical utility. These findings demonstrate the use of deep learning techniques as a valuable tool for medical professionals to analyze the health of the vascular system efficiently and accurately. Please visit the GitHub page for this paper at this https URL.
CV-66-标题: MPSeg : Multi-Phase strategy for coronary artery Segmentation MICCAI2023
作者: Jonghoe Ku, Yong-Hee Lee, Junsup Shin, In Kyu Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim
备注: MICCAI 2023 Conference ARCADE Challenge
Abstract:Accurate segmentation of coronary arteries is a pivotal process in assessing cardiovascular diseases. However, the intricate structure of the cardiovascular system presents significant challenges for automatic segmentation, especially when utilizing methodologies like the SYNTAX Score, which relies extensively on detailed structural information for precise risk stratification. To address these difficulties and cater to this need, we present MPSeg, an innovative multi-phase strategy designed for coronary artery segmentation. Our approach specifically accommodates these structural complexities and adheres to the principles of the SYNTAX Score. Initially, our method segregates vessels into two categories based on their unique morphological characteristics: Left Coronary Artery (LCA) and Right Coronary Artery (RCA). Specialized ensemble models are then deployed for each category to execute the challenging segmentation task. Due to LCA’s higher complexity over RCA, a refinement model is utilized to scrutinize and correct initial class predictions on segmented areas. Notably, our approach demonstrated exceptional effectiveness when evaluated in the Automatic Region-based Coronary Artery Disease diagnostics using x-ray angiography imagEs (ARCADE) Segmentation Detection Algorithm challenge at MICCAI 2023.
CV-67-标题: Semi-supervised ViT knowledge distillation network with style transfer normalization for colorectal liver metastases survival prediction
作者: Mohamed El Amine Elforaici, Emmanuel Montagnon, Francisco Perdigon Romero, William Trung Le, Feryel Azzi, Dominique Trudel, Bich Nguyen, Simon Turcotte, An Tang, Samuel Kadoury
备注: 16 pages, 7 figures and 7 tables. Submitted to Medical Journal Analysis (MedIA) journal
Abstract:Colorectal liver metastases (CLM) significantly impact colon cancer patients, influencing survival based on systemic chemotherapy response. Traditional methods like tumor grading scores (e.g., tumor regression grade - TRG) for prognosis suffer from subjectivity, time constraints, and expertise demands. Current machine learning approaches often focus on radiological data, yet the relevance of histological images for survival predictions, capturing intricate tumor microenvironment characteristics, is gaining recognition. To address these limitations, we propose an end-to-end approach for automated prognosis prediction using histology slides stained with H&E and HPS. We first employ a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for slide normalization to reduce staining variations and improve the overall quality of the images that are used as input to our prediction pipeline. We propose a semi-supervised model to perform tissue classification from sparse annotations, producing feature maps. We use an attention-based approach that weighs the importance of different slide regions in producing the final classification results. We exploit the extracted features for the metastatic nodules and surrounding tissue to train a prognosis model. In parallel, we train a vision Transformer (ViT) in a knowledge distillation framework to replicate and enhance the performance of the prognosis prediction. In our evaluation on a clinical dataset of 258 patients, our approach demonstrates superior performance with c-indexes of 0.804 (0.014) for OS and 0.733 (0.014) for TTR. Achieving 86.9% to 90.3% accuracy in predicting TRG dichotomization and 78.5% to 82.1% accuracy for the 3-class TRG classification task, our approach outperforms comparative methods. Our proposed pipeline can provide automated prognosis for pathologists and oncologists, and can greatly promote precision medicine progress in managing CLM patients.
CV-68-标题: UniMOS: A Universal Framework For Multi-Organ Segmentation Over Label-Constrained Dataset s
作者: Can Li, Sheng Shao, Junyi Qu, Shuchao Pang, Mehmet A. Orgun
备注: Accepted by BIBM2023
Abstract:Machine learning models for medical images can help physicians diagnose and manage diseases. However, due to the fact that medical image annotation requires a great deal of manpower and expertise, as well as the fact that clinical departments perform image annotation based on task orientation, there is the problem of having fewer medical image annotation data with more unlabeled data and having many datasets that annotate only a single organ. In this paper, we present UniMOS, the first universal framework for achieving the utilization of fully and partially labeled images as well as unlabeled images. Specifically, we construct a Multi-Organ Segmentation (MOS) module over fully/partially labeled data as the basenet and designed a new target adaptive loss. Furthermore, we incorporate a semi-supervised training module that combines consistent regularization and pseudolabeling techniques on unlabeled data, which significantly improves the segmentation of unlabeled data. Experiments show that the framework exhibits excellent performance in several medical image segmentation tasks compared to other advanced methods, and also significantly improves data utilization and reduces annotation cost. Code and models are available at: this https URL.
CV-69-标题: CV-Attention UNet: Attention-based UNet for 3D Cerebrovascular Segmentation of Enhanced TOF-MRA Images
作者: Syed Farhan Abbas, Nguyen Thanh Duc, Yoonguu Song, Kyungwon Kim, Boreom Lee
Abstract:Due to the lack of automated methods, to diagnose cerebrovascular disease, time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) is assessed visually, making it time-consuming. The commonly used encoder-decoder architectures for cerebrovascular segmentation utilize redundant features, eventually leading to the extraction of low-level features multiple times. Additionally, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) suffer from performance degradation when the batch size is small, and deeper networks experience the vanishing gradient problem. Methods: In this paper, we attempt to solve these limitations and propose the 3D cerebrovascular attention UNet method, named CV-AttentionUNet, for precise extraction of brain vessel images. We proposed a sequence of preprocessing techniques followed by deeply supervised UNet to improve the accuracy of segmentation of the brain vessels leading to a stroke. To combine the low and high semantics, we applied the attention mechanism. This mechanism focuses on relevant associations and neglects irrelevant anatomical information. Furthermore, the inclusion of deep supervision incorporates different levels of features that prove to be beneficial for network convergence. Results: We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by cross-validating with an unlabeled dataset, which was further labeled by us. We believe that the novelty of this algorithm lies in its ability to perform well on both labeled and unlabeled data with image processing-based enhancement. The results indicate that our method performed better than the existing state-of-the-art methods on the TubeTK dataset. Conclusion: The proposed method will help in accurate segmentation of cerebrovascular structure leading to stroke
CV-70-标题: K-space Cold Diffusion: Learning to Reconstruct Accelerated MRI without Noise
作者: Guoyao Shen, Mengyu Li, Chad W. Farris, Stephan Anderson, Xin Zhang
备注: 9 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables
Abstract:Deep learning-based MRI reconstruction models have achieved superior performance these days. Most recently, diffusion models have shown remarkable performance in image generation, in-painting, super-resolution, image editing and more. As a generalized diffusion model, cold diffusion further broadens the scope and considers models built around arbitrary image transformations such as blurring, down-sampling, etc. In this paper, we propose a k-space cold diffusion model that performs image degradation and restoration in k-space without the need for Gaussian noise. We provide comparisons with multiple deep learning-based MRI reconstruction models and perform tests on a well-known large open-source MRI dataset. Our results show that this novel way of performing degradation can generate high-quality reconstruction images for accelerated MRI.
CV-71-标题: Now and Future of Artificial Intelligence-based Signet Ring Cell Diagnosis: A Survey
作者: Zhu Meng, Junhao Dong, Limei Guo, Fei Su, Guangxi Wang, Zhicheng Zhao
Abstract:Since signet ring cells (SRCs) are associated with high peripheral metastasis rate and dismal survival, they play an important role in determining surgical approaches and prognosis, while they are easily missed by even experienced pathologists. Although automatic diagnosis SRCs based on deep learning has received increasing attention to assist pathologists in improving the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy, the existing works have not been systematically overviewed, which hindered the evaluation of the gap between algorithms and clinical applications. In this paper, we provide a survey on SRC analysis driven by deep learning from 2008 to August 2023. Specifically, the biological characteristics of SRCs and the challenges of automatic identification are systemically summarized. Then, the representative algorithms are analyzed and compared via dividing them into classification, detection, and segmentation. Finally, for comprehensive consideration to the performance of existing methods and the requirements for clinical assistance, we discuss the open issues and future trends of SRC analysis. The retrospect research will help researchers in the related fields, particularly for who without medical science background not only to clearly find the outline of SRC analysis, but also gain the prospect of intelligent diagnosis, resulting in accelerating the practice and application of intelligent algorithms.
CV-72-标题: DWA: Differential Wavelet Amplifier for Image Super-Resolution
作者: Brian B. Moser, Stanislav Frolov, Federico Raue, Sebastian Palacio, Andreas Dengel
Abstract:This work introduces Differential Wavelet Amplifier (DWA), a drop-in module for wavelet-based image Super-Resolution (SR). DWA invigorates an approach recently receiving less attention, namely Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT). DWT enables an efficient image representation for SR and reduces the spatial area of its input by a factor of 4, the overall model size, and computation cost, framing it as an attractive approach for sustainable ML. Our proposed DWA model improves wavelet-based SR models by leveraging the difference between two convolutional filters to refine relevant feature extraction in the wavelet domain, emphasizing local contrasts and suppressing common noise in the input signals. We show its effectiveness by integrating it into existing SR models, e.g., DWSR and MWCNN, and demonstrate a clear improvement in classical SR tasks. Moreover, DWA enables a direct application of DWSR and MWCNN to input image space, reducing the DWT representation channel-wise since it omits traditional DWT.
IR-0-标题: Ex2Vec: Characterizing Users and Items from the Mere Exposure Effect
作者: Bruno Sguerra, Viet-Anh Tran, Romain Hennequin
Abstract:The traditional recommendation framework seeks to connect user and content, by finding the best match possible based on users past interaction. However, a good content recommendation is not necessarily similar to what the user has chosen in the past. As humans, users naturally evolve, learn, forget, get bored, they change their perspective of the world and in consequence, of the recommendable content. One well known mechanism that affects user interest is the Mere Exposure Effect: when repeatedly exposed to stimuli, users’ interest tends to rise with the initial exposures, reaching a peak, and gradually decreasing thereafter, resulting in an inverted-U shape. Since previous research has shown that the magnitude of the effect depends on a number of interesting factors such as stimulus complexity and familiarity, leveraging this effect is a way to not only improve repeated recommendation but to gain a more in-depth understanding of both users and stimuli. In this work we present (Mere) Exposure2Vec (Ex2Vec) our model that leverages the Mere Exposure Effect in repeat consumption to derive user and item characterization and track user interest evolution. We validate our model through predicting future music consumption based on repetition and discuss its implications for recommendation scenarios where repetition is common.
IR-1-标题: Cross-Modal Search and Exploration of Greek Painted Pottery
作者: Elisabeth Trinkl, Stephan Karl, Stefan Lengauer, Reinhold Preiner, Tobias Schreck
备注: 14 pages, 10 figures, preprint for a book chapter, supplementary video available at this https URL
Abstract:This paper focuses on digitally-supported research methods for an important group of cultural heritage objects, the Greek pottery, especially with figured decoration. The design, development and application of new digital methods for searching, comparing, and visually exploring these vases needs an interdisciplinary approach to effectively analyse the various features of the vases, like shape, decoration, and manufacturing techniques, and relationships between the vases. We motivate the need and opportunities by a multimodal representation of the objects, including 3D shape, material, and painting. We then illustrate a range of innovative methods for these representations, including quantified surface and capacity comparison, material analysis, image flattening from 3D objects, retrieval and comparison of shapes and paintings, and multidimensional data visualization. We also discuss challenges and future work in this area.
IR-2-标题: Collaborative Word-based Pre-trained Item Representation for Transferable Recommendation ICDM2023
作者: Shenghao Yang, Chenyang Wang, Yankai Liu, Kangping Xu, Weizhi Ma, Yiqun Liu, Min Zhang, Haitao Zeng, Junlan Feng, Chao Deng
备注: Accepted by ICDM 2023
Abstract:Item representation learning (IRL) plays an essential role in recommender systems, especially for sequential recommendation. Traditional sequential recommendation models usually utilize ID embeddings to represent items, which are not shared across different domains and lack the transferable ability. Recent studies use pre-trained language models (PLM) for item text embeddings (text-based IRL) that are universally applicable across domains. However, the existing text-based IRL is unaware of the important collaborative filtering (CF) information. In this paper, we propose CoWPiRec, an approach of Collaborative Word-based Pre-trained item representation for Recommendation. To effectively incorporate CF information into text-based IRL, we convert the item-level interaction data to a word graph containing word-level collaborations. Subsequently, we design a novel pre-training task to align the word-level semantic- and CF-related item representation. Extensive experimental results on multiple public datasets demonstrate that compared to state-of-the-art transferable sequential recommenders, CoWPiRec achieves significantly better performances in both fine-tuning and zero-shot settings for cross-scenario recommendation and effectively alleviates the cold-start issue. The code is available at: this https URL.
IR-3-标题: A Comparative Analysis of Retrievability and PageRank Measures
作者: Aman Sinha, Priyanshu Raj Mall, Dwaipayan Roy
备注: Accepted at FIRE 2023
Abstract:The accessibility of documents within a collection holds a pivotal role in Information Retrieval, signifying the ease of locating specific content in a collection of documents. This accessibility can be achieved via two distinct avenues. The first is through some retrieval model using a keyword or other feature-based search, and the other is where a document can be navigated using links associated with them, if available. Metrics such as PageRank, Hub, and Authority illuminate the pathways through which documents can be discovered within the network of content while the concept of Retrievability is used to quantify the ease with which a document can be found by a retrieval model. In this paper, we compare these two perspectives, PageRank and retrievability, as they quantify the importance and discoverability of content in a corpus. Through empirical experimentation on benchmark datasets, we demonstrate a subtle similarity between retrievability and PageRank particularly distinguishable for larger datasets.
AI-0-标题: Chatbots as social companions: How people perceive consciousness human likeness and social health benefits in machines
作者: Rose Guingrich, Michael S. A. Graziano
备注: 14 pages, 3 figures
Abstract:As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes more widespread, one question that arises is how human-AI interaction might impact human-human interaction. Chatbots, for example, are increasingly used as social companions, but little is known about how their use impacts human relationships. A common hypothesis is that these companion bots are detrimental to social health by harming or replacing human interaction. To understand how companion bots impact social health, we studied people who used companion bots and people who did not. Contrary to expectations, companion bot users indicated that these relationships were beneficial to their social health, whereas nonusers viewed them as harmful. Another common assumption is that people perceive conscious, humanlike AI as disturbing and threatening. Among both users and nonusers, however, we found the opposite: perceiving companion bots as more conscious and humanlike correlated with more positive opinions and better social health benefits. Humanlike bots may aid social health by supplying reliable and safe interactions, without necessarily harming human relationships.
AI-1-标题: Testing Language Model Agent s Safely in the Wild
作者: Silen Naihin, David Atkinson, Marc Green, Merwane Hamadi, Craig Swift, Douglas Schonholtz, Adam Tauman Kalai, David Bau
Abstract:A prerequisite for safe autonomy-in-the-wild is safe testing-in-the-wild. Yet real-world autonomous tests face several unique safety challenges, both due to the possibility of causing harm during a test, as well as the risk of encountering new unsafe agent behavior through interactions with real-world and potentially malicious actors. We propose a framework for conducting safe autonomous agent tests on the open internet: agent actions are audited by a context-sensitive monitor that enforces a stringent safety boundary to stop an unsafe test, with suspect behavior ranked and logged to be examined by humans. We a design a basic safety monitor that is flexible enough to monitor existing LLM agents, and, using an adversarial simulated agent, we measure its ability to identify and stop unsafe situations. Then we apply the safety monitor on a battery of real-world tests of AutoGPT, and we identify several limitations and challenges that will face the creation of safe in-the-wild tests as autonomous agents grow more capable.
AI-2-标题: A Graphical Model of Hurricane Evacuation Behaviors
作者: Hui Sophie Wang, Nutchanon Yongsatianchot, Stacy Marsella
Abstract:Natural disasters such as hurricanes are increasing and causing widespread devastation. People’s decisions and actions regarding whether to evacuate or not are critical and have a large impact on emergency planning and response. Our interest lies in computationally modeling complex relationships among various factors influencing evacuation decisions. We conducted a study on the evacuation of Hurricane Irma of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. The study was guided by the Protection motivation theory (PMT), a widely-used framework to understand people’s responses to potential threats. Graphical models were constructed to represent the complex relationships among the factors involved and the evacuation decision. We evaluated different graphical structures based on conditional independence tests using Irma data. The final model largely aligns with PMT. It shows that both risk perception (threat appraisal) and difficulties in evacuation (coping appraisal) influence evacuation decisions directly and independently. Certain information received from media was found to influence risk perception, and through it influence evacuation behaviors indirectly. In addition, several variables were found to influence both risk perception and evacuation behaviors directly, including family and friends’ suggestions, neighbors’ evacuation behaviors, and evacuation notices from officials.
AI-3-标题: Intelligent Generation of Graphical Game Assets: A Conceptual Framework and Systematic Review of the State of the Art
作者: Kaisei Fukaya, Damon Daylamani-Zad, Harry Agius
Abstract:Procedural content generation (PCG) can be applied to a wide variety of tasks in games, from narratives, levels and sounds, to trees and weapons. A large amount of game content is comprised of graphical assets, such as clouds, buildings or vegetation, that do not require gameplay function considerations. There is also a breadth of literature examining the procedural generation of such elements for purposes outside of games. The body of research, focused on specific methods for generating specific assets, provides a narrow view of the available possibilities. Hence, it is difficult to have a clear picture of all approaches and possibilities, with no guide for interested parties to discover possible methods and approaches for their needs, and no facility to guide them through each technique or approach to map out the process of using them. Therefore, a systematic literature review has been conducted, yielding 200 accepted papers. This paper explores state-of-the-art approaches to graphical asset generation, examining research from a wide range of applications, inside and outside of games. Informed by the literature, a conceptual framework has been derived to address the aforementioned gaps.
AI-4-标题: A Framework of Defining Modeling and Analyzing Cognition Mechanisms
作者: Amir Fayezioghani
备注: A paper on cognition mechanisms as a basis for development of foundational models/architectures of cognitive/intelligent systems
Abstract:Cognition is a core part of and a common topic among philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, AI, and cognitive science. Through a mechanistic lens, I propose a framework of defining, modeling, and analyzing cognition mechanisms. Firstly, appropriate terms are introduced and used in explanations related to the framework and within the definition of a mechanism. I implicitly contend that this terminology essentially characterizes a conceptual world required for discussions in this paper. Secondly, a mathematical model of a mechanism based on directed graphs is proposed. Thirdly, the definition of a base necessary for a mechanism to be classified as a cognition mechanism is proposed. I argue that the cognition base has the features of the cognition self of humans. Fourthly, three ways to mechanistically look at mechanisms is defined and specific instances of them are suggested. Fifthly, standards for visualization and presentation of mechanisms, cognition mechanisms, and the instances to mechanistically look at them are suggested and used to analyze cognition mechanisms through appropriate examples. Finally, the features of this paper are discussed and prospects of further development of the proposed framework are briefly expressed.
AI-5-标题: Automated Parliaments: A Solution to Decision Uncertainty and Misalignment in Language Models
作者: Thomas Forster, Jonathan Ouwerx, Shak Ragoler
备注: 39 pages, 4 figures
Abstract:As AI takes on a greater role in the modern world, it is essential to ensure that AI models can overcome decision uncertainty and remain aligned with human morality and interests. This research paper proposes a method for improving the decision-making of language models (LMs) via Automated Parliaments (APs) - constructs made of AI delegates each representing a certain perspective. Delegates themselves consist of three AI models: generators, modifiers, and evaluators. We specify two mechanisms for producing optimal solutions: the Simultaneous Modification mechanism for response creation and an evaluation mechanism for fairly assessing solutions. The overall process begins when each generator creates a response aligned with its delegate’s theory. The modifiers alter all other responses to make them more self-aligned. The evaluators collectively assess the best end response. Finally, the modifiers and generators learn from feedback from the evaluators. In our research, we tested the evaluation mechanism, comparing the use of single-value zero-shot prompting and AP few-shot prompting in evaluating morally contentious scenarios. We found that the AP architecture saw a 57.3% reduction in its loss value compared to the baseline. We conclude by discussing some potential applications of APs and specifically their potential impact when implemented as Automated Moral Parliaments.
AI-6-标题: Investigating AIs Challenges in Reasoning and Explanation from a Historical Perspective
作者: Benji Alwis
Abstract:This paper provides an overview of the intricate relationship between social dynamics, technological advancements, and pioneering figures in the fields of cybernetics and artificial intelligence. It explores the impact of collaboration and interpersonal relationships among key scientists, such as McCulloch, Wiener, Pitts, and Rosenblatt, on the development of cybernetics and neural networks. It also discusses the contested attribution of credit for important innovations like the backpropagation algorithm and the potential consequences of unresolved debates within emerging scientific domains. It emphasizes how interpretive flexibility, public perception, and the influence of prominent figures can shape the trajectory of a new field. It highlights the role of funding, media attention, and alliances in determining the success and recognition of various research approaches. Additionally, it points out the missed opportunities for collaboration and integration between symbolic AI and neural network researchers, suggesting that a more unified approach may be possible in today’s era without the historical baggage of past debates.
AI-7-标题: Quantum Data Encoding: A Comparative Analysis of Classical-to-Quantum Mapping Techniques and Their Impact on Machine Learning Accuracy
作者: Minati Rath, Hema Date
Abstract:This research explores the integration of quantum data embedding techniques into classical machine learning (ML) algorithms, aiming to assess the performance enhancements and computational implications across a spectrum of models. We explore various classical-to-quantum mapping methods, ranging from basis encoding, angle encoding to amplitude encoding for encoding classical data, we conducted an extensive empirical study encompassing popular ML algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines and ensemble methods like Random Forest, LightGBM, AdaBoost, and CatBoost. Our findings reveal that quantum data embedding contributes to improved classification accuracy and F1 scores, particularly notable in models that inherently benefit from enhanced feature representation. We observed nuanced effects on running time, with low-complexity models exhibiting moderate increases and more computationally intensive models experiencing discernible changes. Notably, ensemble methods demonstrated a favorable balance between performance gains and computational overhead. This study underscores the potential of quantum data embedding in enhancing classical ML models and emphasizes the importance of weighing performance improvements against computational costs. Future research directions may involve refining quantum encoding processes to optimize computational efficiency and exploring scalability for real-world applications. Our work contributes to the growing body of knowledge at the intersection of quantum computing and classical machine learning, offering insights for researchers and practitioners seeking to harness the advantages of quantum-inspired techniques in practical scenarios.
AI-8-标题: Quantum-Assisted Simulation: A Framework for Designing Machine Learning Models in the Quantum Computing Domain
作者: Minati Rath, Hema Date
Abstract:Machine learning (ML) models are trained using historical data to classify new, unseen data. However, traditional computing resources often struggle to handle the immense amount of data, commonly known as Big Data, within a reasonable timeframe. Quantum computing (QC) provides a novel approach to information processing. Quantum algorithms have the potential to process classical data exponentially faster than classical computing. By mapping quantum machine learning (QML) algorithms into the quantum mechanical domain, we can potentially achieve exponential improvements in data processing speed, reduced resource requirements, and enhanced accuracy and efficiency. In this article, we delve into both the QC and ML fields, exploring the interplay of ideas between them, as well as the current capabilities and limitations of hardware. We investigate the history of quantum computing, examine existing QML algorithms, and aim to present a simplified procedure for setting up simulations of QML algorithms, making it accessible and understandable for readers. Furthermore, we conducted simulations on a dataset using both machine learning and quantum machine learning approaches. We then proceeded to compare their respective performances by utilizing a quantum simulator.