## 目录

### 概览 (2022-09-26)

• 17篇自然语言处理（NLP: cs.CL)
• 66篇计算机视觉(CV: cs.CV)
• 40篇机器学习(ML: cs.LG)
• 5篇人工智能(AI: cs.AI)
• 其它主题87篇

### 自然语言处理

NLP-0-标题 Promptagator Few-shot Dense Retrieval From 8 Examples

Abstract: Much recent research on information retrieval has focused on how to transfer from one task (typically with abundant supervised data) to various other tasks where supervision is limited, with the implicit assumption that it is possible to generalize from one task to all the rest. However, this overlooks the fact that there are many diverse and unique retrieval tasks, each targeting different search intents, queries, and search domains. In this paper, we suggest to work on Few-shot Dense Retrieval, a setting where each task comes with a short description and a few examples. To amplify the power of a few examples, we propose Prompt-base Query Generation for Retriever (Promptagator), which leverages large language models (LLM) as a few-shot query generator, and creates task-specific retrievers based on the generated data. Powered by LLM’s generalization ability, Promptagator makes it possible to create task-specific end-to-end retrievers solely based on a few examples without using Natural Questions or MS MARCO to train %question generators or dual encoders. Surprisingly, LLM prompting with no more than 8 examples allows dual encoders to outperform heavily engineered models trained on MS MARCO like ColBERT v2 by more than 1.2 nDCG on average on 11 retrieval sets. Further training standard-size re-rankers using the same generated data yields another 5.0 point nDCG improvement. Our studies determine that query generation can be far more effective than previously observed, especially when a small amount of task-specific knowledge is given.

NLP-1-标题 Temporal Analysis on Topics Using Word2Vec

Abstract: The present study proposes a novel method of trend detection and visualization - more specifically, modeling the change in a topic over time. Where current models used for the identification and visualization of trends only convey the popularity of a singular word based on stochastic counting of usage, the approach in the present study illustrates the popularity and direction that a topic is moving in. The direction in this case is a distinct subtopic within the selected corpus. Such trends are generated by modeling the movement of a topic by using k-means clustering and cosine similarity to group the distances between clusters over time. In a convergent scenario, it can be inferred that the topics as a whole are meshing (tokens between topics, becoming interchangeable). On the contrary, a divergent scenario would imply that each topics’ respective tokens would not be found in the same context (the words are increasingly different to each other). The methodology was tested on a group of articles from various media houses present in the 20 Newsgroups dataset.

NLP-2-标题 Best Prompts for Text-to-Image Models and How to Find Them

Abstract: Recent progress in generative models, especially in text-guided diffusion models, has enabled the production of aesthetically-pleasing imagery resembling the works of professional human artists. However, one has to carefully compose the textual description, called the prompt, and augment it with a set of clarifying keywords. Since aesthetics are challenging to evaluate computationally, human feedback is needed to determine the optimal prompt formulation and keyword combination. In this paper, we present a human-in-the-loop approach to learning the most useful combination of prompt keywords using a genetic algorithm. We also show how such an approach can improve the aesthetic appeal of images depicting the same descriptions.

NLP-3-标题 A Neural Model for Regular Grammar Induction

Abstract: Grammatical inference is a classical problem in computational learning theory and a topic of wider influence in natural language processing. We treat grammars as a model of computation and propose a novel neural approach to induction of regular grammars from positive and negative examples. Our model is fully explainable, its intermediate results are directly interpretable as partial parses, and it can be used to learn arbitrary regular grammars when provided with sufficient data. Our method consistently attains high recall and precision scores across a range of tests of varying complexity. We make the detailed results and code readily available.

Abstract: Most domain adaptation methods for machine reading comprehension (MRC) use a pre-trained question-answer (QA) construction model to generate pseudo QA pairs for MRC transfer. Such a process will inevitably introduce mismatched pairs (i.e., noisy correspondence) due to i) the unavailable QA pairs in target documents, and ii) the domain shift during applying the QA construction model to the target domain. Undoubtedly, the noisy correspondence will degenerate the performance of MRC, which however is neglected by existing works. To solve such an untouched problem, we propose to construct QA pairs by additionally using the dialogue related to the documents, as well as a new domain adaptation method for MRC. Specifically, we propose Robust Domain Adaptation for Machine Reading Comprehension (RMRC) method which consists of an answer extractor (AE), a question selector (QS), and an MRC model. Specifically, RMRC filters out the irrelevant answers by estimating the correlation to the document via the AE, and extracts the questions by fusing the candidate questions in multiple rounds of dialogue chats via the QS. With the extracted QA pairs, MRC is fine-tuned and provides the feedback to optimize the QS through a novel reinforced self-training method. Thanks to the optimization of the QS, our method will greatly alleviate the noisy correspondence problem caused by the domain shift. To the best of our knowledge, this could be the first study to reveal the influence of noisy correspondence in domain adaptation MRC models and show a feasible way to achieve robustness to mismatched pairs. Extensive experiments on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

NLP-5-标题 An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Evaluation and Experimental Design for Visual Text Analytics Position Paper

Abstract: Appropriate evaluation and experimental design are fundamental for empirical sciences, particularly in data-driven fields. Due to the successes in computational modeling of languages, for instance, research outcomes are having an increasingly immediate impact on end users. As the gap in adoption by end users decreases, the need increases to ensure that tools and models developed by the research communities and practitioners are reliable, trustworthy, and supportive of the users in their goals. In this position paper, we focus on the issues of evaluating visual text analytics approaches. We take an interdisciplinary perspective from the visualization and natural language processing communities, as we argue that the design and validation of visual text analytics include concerns beyond computational or visual/interactive methods on their own. We identify four key groups of challenges for evaluating visual text analytics approaches (data ambiguity, experimental design, user trust, and "big picture’’ concerns) and provide suggestions for research opportunities from an interdisciplinary perspective.

NLP-6-标题 MetaPrompting Learning to Learn Better Prompts

Abstract: Prompting method is regarded as one of the crucial progress for few-shot nature language processing. Recent research on prompting moves from discrete tokens based hard prompts'' to continuous soft prompts’', which employ learnable vectors as pseudo prompt tokens and achieve better performance. Though showing promising prospects, these soft-prompting methods are observed to rely heavily on good initialization to take effect. Unfortunately, obtaining a perfect initialization for soft prompts requires understanding of inner language models working and elaborate design, which is no easy task and has to restart from scratch for each new task. To remedy this, we propose a generalized soft prompting method called MetaPrompting, which adopts the well-recognized model-agnostic meta-learning algorithm to automatically find better prompt initialization that facilitates fast adaptation to new prompting tasks.Extensive experiments show MetaPrompting tackles soft prompt initialization problem and brings significant improvement on four different datasets (over 6 points improvement in accuracy for 1-shot setting), achieving new state-of-the-art performance.

NLP-7-标题 ET5 A Novel End-to-end Framework for Conversational Machine Reading Comprehension

Abstract: Conversational machine reading comprehension (CMRC) aims to assist computers to understand an natural language text and thereafter engage in a multi-turn conversation to answer questions related to the text. Existing methods typically require three steps: (1) decision making based on entailment reasoning; (2) span extraction if required by the above decision; (3) question rephrasing based on the extracted span. However, for nearly all these methods, the span extraction and question rephrasing steps cannot fully exploit the fine-grained entailment reasoning information in decision making step because of their relative independence, which will further enlarge the information gap between decision making and question phrasing. Thus, to tackle this problem, we propose a novel end-to-end framework for conversational machine reading comprehension based on shared parameter mechanism, called entailment reasoning T5 (ET5). Despite the lightweight of our proposed framework, experimental results show that the proposed ET5 achieves new state-of-the-art results on the ShARC leaderboard with the BLEU-4 score of 55.2. Our model and code are publicly available at this https URL.

NLP-8-标题 News Category Dataset

Abstract: People rely on news to know what is happening around the world and inform their daily lives. In today’s world, when the proliferation of fake news is rampant, having a large-scale and high-quality source of authentic news articles with the published category information is valuable to learning authentic news’ Natural Language syntax and semantics. As part of this work, we present a News Category Dataset that contains around 200k news headlines from the year 2012 to 2018 obtained from HuffPost, along with useful metadata to enable various NLP tasks. In this paper, we also produce some novel insights from the dataset and describe various existing and potential applications of our dataset.

NLP-9-标题 Zero-shot Domain Adaptation for Neural Machine Translation with Retrieved Phrase-level Prompts

Abstract: Domain adaptation is an important challenge for neural machine translation. However, the traditional fine-tuning solution requires multiple extra training and yields a high cost. In this paper, we propose a non-tuning paradigm, resolving domain adaptation with a prompt-based method. Specifically, we construct a bilingual phrase-level database and retrieve relevant pairs from it as a prompt for the input sentences. By utilizing Retrieved Phrase-level Prompts (RePP), we effectively boost the translation quality. Experiments show that our method improves domain-specific machine translation for 6.2 BLEU scores and improves translation constraints for 11.5% accuracy without additional training.

NLP-10-标题 IDEA Interactive DoublE Attentions from Label Embedding for Text Classification

Abstract: Current text classification methods typically encode the text merely into embedding before a naive or complicated classifier, which ignores the suggestive information contained in the label text. As a matter of fact, humans classify documents primarily based on the semantic meaning of the subcategories. We propose a novel model structure via siamese BERT and interactive double attentions named IDEA ( Interactive DoublE Attentions) to capture the information exchange of text and label names. Interactive double attentions enable the model to exploit the inter-class and intra-class information from coarse to fine, which involves distinguishing among all labels and matching the semantical subclasses of ground truth labels. Our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods using label texts significantly with more stable results.

NLP-11-标题 Conversational QA Dataset Generation with Answer Revision

Abstract: Conversational question–answer generation is a task that automatically generates a large-scale conversational question answering dataset based on input passages. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework that extracts question-worthy phrases from a passage and then generates corresponding questions considering previous conversations. In particular, our framework revises the extracted answers after generating questions so that answers exactly match paired questions. Experimental results show that our simple answer revision approach leads to significant improvement in the quality of synthetic data. Moreover, we prove that our framework can be effectively utilized for domain adaptation of conversational question answering.

NLP-12-标题 Improving Conversational Recommender System via Contextual and Time-Aware Modeling with Less Domain-Specific Knowledge

Abstract: Conversational Recommender Systems (CRS) has become an emerging research topic seeking to perform recommendations through interactive conversations, which generally consist of generation and recommendation modules. Prior work on CRS tends to incorporate more external and domain-specific knowledge like item reviews to enhance performance. Despite the fact that the collection and annotation of the external domain-specific information needs much human effort and degenerates the generalizability, too much extra knowledge introduces more difficulty to balance among them. Therefore, we propose to fully discover and extract internal knowledge from the context. We capture both entity-level and contextual-level representations to jointly model user preferences for the recommendation, where a time-aware attention is designed to emphasize the recently appeared items in entity-level representations. We further use the pre-trained BART to initialize the generation module to alleviate the data scarcity and enhance the context modeling. In addition to conducting experiments on a popular dataset (ReDial), we also include a multi-domain dataset (OpenDialKG) to show the effectiveness of our model. Experiments on both datasets show that our model achieves better performance on most evaluation metrics with less external knowledge and generalizes well to other domains. Additional analyses on the recommendation and generation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our model in different scenarios.

NLP-13-标题 Extending Word-Level Quality Estimation for Post-Editing Assistance

Abstract: We define a novel concept called extended word alignment in order to improve post-editing assistance efficiency. Based on extended word alignment, we further propose a novel task called refined word-level QE that outputs refined tags and word-level correspondences. Compared to original word-level QE, the new task is able to directly point out editing operations, thus improves efficiency. To extract extended word alignment, we adopt a supervised method based on mBERT. To solve refined word-level QE, we firstly predict original QE tags by training a regression model for sequence tagging based on mBERT and XLM-R. Then, we refine original word tags with extended word alignment. In addition, we extract source-gap correspondences, meanwhile, obtaining gap tags. Experiments on two language pairs show the feasibility of our method and give us inspirations for further improvement.

NLP-14-标题 Towards Faithful Model Explanation in NLP A Survey

Abstract: End-to-end neural NLP architectures are notoriously difficult to understand, which gives rise to numerous efforts towards model explainability in recent years. An essential principle of model explanation is Faithfulness, i.e., an explanation should accurately represent the reasoning process behind the model’s prediction. This survey first discusses the definition and evaluation of Faithfulness, as well as its significance for explainability. We then introduce the recent advances in faithful explanation by grouping approaches into five categories: similarity methods, analysis of model-internal structures, backpropagation-based methods, counterfactual intervention, and self-explanatory models. Each category will be illustrated with its representative studies, advantages, and shortcomings. Finally, we discuss all the above methods in terms of their common virtues and limitations, and reflect on future work directions towards faithful explainability. For researchers interested in studying interpretability, this survey will offer an accessible and comprehensive overview of the area, laying the basis for further exploration. For users hoping to better understand their own models, this survey will be an introductory manual helping with choosing the most suitable explanation method(s).

NLP-15-标题 ProgPrompt Generating Situated Robot Task Plans using Large Language Models

Abstract: Task planning can require defining myriad domain knowledge about the world in which a robot needs to act. To ameliorate that effort, large language models (LLMs) can be used to score potential next actions during task planning, and even generate action sequences directly, given an instruction in natural language with no additional domain information. However, such methods either require enumerating all possible next steps for scoring, or generate free-form text that may contain actions not possible on a given robot in its current context. We present a programmatic LLM prompt structure that enables plan generation functional across situated environments, robot capabilities, and tasks. Our key insight is to prompt the LLM with program-like specifications of the available actions and objects in an environment, as well as with example programs that can be executed. We make concrete recommendations about prompt structure and generation constraints through ablation experiments, demonstrate state of the art success rates in VirtualHome household tasks, and deploy our method on a physical robot arm for tabletop tasks. Website at this http URL

NLP-16-标题 XF2T Cross-lingual Fact-to-Text Generation for Low-Resource Languages

Abstract: Multiple business scenarios require an automated generation of descriptive human-readable text from structured input data. Hence, fact-to-text generation systems have been developed for various downstream tasks like generating soccer reports, weather and financial reports, medical reports, person biographies, etc. Unfortunately, previous work on fact-to-text (F2T) generation has focused primarily on English mainly due to the high availability of relevant datasets. Only recently, the problem of cross-lingual fact-to-text (XF2T) was proposed for generation across multiple languages alongwith a dataset, XALIGN for eight languages. However, there has been no rigorous work on the actual XF2T generation problem. We extend XALIGN dataset with annotated data for four more languages: Punjabi, Malayalam, Assamese and Oriya. We conduct an extensive study using popular Transformer-based text generation models on our extended multi-lingual dataset, which we call XALIGNV2. Further, we investigate the performance of different text generation strategies: multiple variations of pretraining, fact-aware embeddings and structure-aware input encoding. Our extensive experiments show that a multi-lingual mT5 model which uses fact-aware embeddings with structure-aware input encoding leads to best results on average across the twelve languages. We make our code, dataset and model publicly available, and hope that this will help advance further research in this critical area.

### 机器学习

ML-0-标题 GLSO Grammar-guided Latent Space Optimization for Sample-efficient Robot Design Automation

Abstract: Robots have been used in all sorts of automation, and yet the design of robots remains mainly a manual task. We seek to provide design tools to automate the design of robots themselves. An important challenge in robot design automation is the large and complex design search space which grows exponentially with the number of components, making optimization difficult and sample inefficient. In this work, we present Grammar-guided Latent Space Optimization (GLSO), a framework that transforms design automation into a low-dimensional continuous optimization problem by training a graph variational autoencoder (VAE) to learn a mapping between the graph-structured design space and a continuous latent space. This transformation allows optimization to be conducted in a continuous latent space, where sample efficiency can be significantly boosted by applying algorithms such as Bayesian Optimization. GLSO guides training of the VAE using graph grammar rules and robot world space features, such that the learned latent space focus on valid robots and is easier for the optimization algorithm to explore. Importantly, the trained VAE can be reused to search for designs specialized to multiple different tasks without retraining. We evaluate GLSO by designing robots for a set of locomotion tasks in simulation, and demonstrate that our method outperforms related state-of-the-art robot design automation methods.

ML-1-标题 Unified Algorithms for RL with Decision-Estimation Coefficients No-Regret PAC and Reward-Free Learning

Abstract: Finding unified complexity measures and algorithms for sample-efficient learning is a central topic of research in reinforcement learning (RL). The Decision-Estimation Coefficient (DEC) is recently proposed by Foster et al. (2021) as a necessary and sufficient complexity measure for sample-efficient no-regret RL. This paper makes progress towards a unified theory for RL with the DEC framework. First, we propose two new DEC-type complexity measures: Explorative DEC (EDEC), and Reward-Free DEC (RFDEC). We show that they are necessary and sufficient for sample-efficient PAC learning and reward-free learning, thereby extending the original DEC which only captures no-regret learning. Next, we design new unified sample-efficient algorithms for all three learning goals. Our algorithms instantiate variants of the Estimation-To-Decisions (E2D) meta-algorithm with a strong and general model estimation subroutine. Even in the no-regret setting, our algorithm E2D-TA improves upon the algorithms of Foster et al. (2021) which require either bounding a variant of the DEC which may be prohibitively large, or designing problem-specific estimation subroutines. As applications, we recover existing and obtain new sample-efficient learning results for a wide range of tractable RL problems using essentially a single algorithm. Finally, as a connection, we re-analyze two existing optimistic model-based algorithms based on Posterior Sampling or Maximum Likelihood Estimation, showing that they enjoy similar regret bounds as E2D-TA under similar structural conditions as the DEC.

ML-2-标题 From Weakly Supervised Learning to Active Learning

Abstract: Applied mathematics and machine computations have raised a lot of hope since the recent success of supervised learning. Many practitioners in industries have been trying to switch from their old paradigms to machine learning. Interestingly, those data scientists spend more time scrapping, annotating and cleaning data than fine-tuning models. This thesis is motivated by the following question: can we derive a more generic framework than the one of supervised learning in order to learn from clutter data? This question is approached through the lens of weakly supervised learning, assuming that the bottleneck of data collection lies in annotation. We model weak supervision as giving, rather than a unique target, a set of target candidates. We argue that one should look for an optimistic'' function that matches most of the observations. This allows us to derive a principle to disambiguate partial labels. We also discuss the advantage to incorporate unsupervised learning techniques into our framework, in particular manifold regularization approached through diffusion techniques, for which we derived a new algorithm that scales better with input dimension then the baseline method. Finally, we switch from passive to active weakly supervised learning, introducing the active labeling’’ framework, in which a practitioner can query weak information about chosen data. Among others, we leverage the fact that one does not need full information to access stochastic gradients and perform stochastic gradient descent.

ML-3-标题 Neural Clamping Joint Input Perturbation and Temperature Scaling for Neural Network Calibration

Abstract: Neural network calibration is an essential task in deep learning to ensure consistency between the confidence of model prediction and the true correctness likelihood. In this paper, we propose a new post-processing calibration method called Neural Clamping, which employs a simple joint input-output transformation on a pre-trained classifier via a learnable universal input perturbation and an output temperature scaling parameter. Moreover, we provide theoretical explanations on why Neural Clamping is provably better than temperature scaling. Evaluated on CIFAR-100 and ImageNet image recognition datasets and a variety of deep neural network models, our empirical results show that Neural Clamping significantly outperforms state-of-the-art post-processing calibration methods.

ML-4-标题 Machine Learning and Analytical Power Consumption Models for 5G Base Stations

Abstract: The energy consumption of the fifth generation(5G) of mobile networks is one of the major concerns of the telecom industry. However, there is not currently an accurate and tractable approach to evaluate 5G base stations (BSs) power consumption. In this article, we propose a novel model for a realistic characterisation of the power consumption of 5G multi-carrier BSs, which builds on a large data collection campaign. At first, we define a machine learning architecture that allows modelling multiple 5G BS products. Then, we exploit the knowledge gathered by this framework to derive a realistic and analytically tractable power consumption model, which can help driving both theoretical analyses as well as feature standardisation, development and optimisation frameworks. Notably, we demonstrate that such model has high precision, and it is able of capturing the benefits of energy saving mechanisms. We believe this analytical model represents a fundamental tool for understanding 5G BSs power consumption, and accurately optimising the network energy efficiency.

ML-5-标题 Quantification before Selection Active Dynamics Preference for Robust Reinforcement Learning

Abstract: Training a robust policy is critical for policy deployment in real-world systems or dealing with unknown dynamics mismatch in different dynamic systems. Domain Randomization~(DR) is a simple and elegant approach that trains a conservative policy to counter different dynamic systems without expert knowledge about the target system parameters. However, existing works reveal that the policy trained through DR tends to be over-conservative and performs poorly in target domains. Our key insight is that dynamic systems with different parameters provide different levels of difficulty for the policy, and the difficulty of behaving well in a system is constantly changing due to the evolution of the policy. If we can actively sample the systems with proper difficulty for the policy on the fly, it will stabilize the training process and prevent the policy from becoming over-conservative or over-optimistic. To operationalize this idea, we introduce Active Dynamics Preference~(ADP), which quantifies the informativeness and density of sampled system parameters. ADP actively selects system parameters with high informativeness and low density. We validate our approach in four robotic locomotion tasks with various discrepancies between the training and testing environments. Extensive results demonstrate that our approach has superior robustness for system inconsistency compared to several baselines.

ML-6-标题 Differentially private partitioned variational inference

Abstract: Learning a privacy-preserving model from distributed sensitive data is an increasingly important problem, often formulated in the federated learning context. Variational inference has recently been extended to the non-private federated learning setting via the partitioned variational inference algorithm. For privacy protection, the current gold standard is called differential privacy. Differential privacy guarantees privacy in a strong, mathematically clearly defined sense. In this paper, we present differentially private partitioned variational inference, the first general framework for learning a variational approximation to a Bayesian posterior distribution in the federated learning setting while minimising the number of communication rounds and providing differential privacy guarantees for data subjects. We propose three alternative implementations in the general framework, one based on perturbing local optimisation done by individual parties, and two based on perturbing global updates (one using a version of federated averaging, one adding virtual parties to the protocol), and compare their properties both theoretically and empirically. We show that perturbing the local optimisation works well with simple and complex models as long as each party has enough local data. However, the privacy is always guaranteed independently by each party. In contrast, perturbing the global updates works best with relatively simple models. Given access to suitable secure primitives, such as secure aggregation or secure shuffling, the performance can be improved by all parties guaranteeing privacy jointly.

ML-7-标题 Learning Rigid Body Dynamics with Lagrangian Graph Neural Network

Abstract: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian neural networks (LNN and HNN respectively) encode strong inductive biases that allow them to outperform other models of physical systems significantly. However, these models have, thus far, mostly been limited to simple systems such as pendulums and springs or a single rigid body such as a gyroscope or a rigid rotor. Here, we present a Lagrangian graph neural network (LGNN) that can learn the dynamics of rigid bodies by exploiting their topology. We demonstrate the performance of LGNN by learning the dynamics of ropes, chains, and trusses with the bars modeled as rigid bodies. LGNN also exhibits generalizability – LGNN trained on chains with a few segments exhibits generalizability to simulate a chain with large number of links and arbitrary link length. We also show that the LGNN can simulate unseen hybrid systems including bars and chains, on which they have not been trained on. Specifically, we show that the LGNN can be used to model the dynamics of complex real-world structures such as the stability of tensegrity structures. Finally, we discuss the non-diagonal nature of the mass matrix and it’s ability to generalize in complex systems.

ML-8-标题 Applications of Machine Learning in Chemical and Biological Oceanography

Abstract: Machine learning (ML) refers to computer algorithms that predict a meaningful output or categorise complex systems based on a large amount of data. ML applied in a variety of areas, including natural science, engineering, space exploration, and even gaming development. This article focused on the use of machine learning in the field of chemical and biological oceanography. In the prediction of global fixed nitrogen levels, partial carbon dioxide pressure, and other chemical properties, the application of ML is a promising tool. Machine learning is also utilised in the field of biological oceanography to detect planktonic forms from various images (i.e., microscopy, FlowCAM and video recorder), spectrometers, and other signal processing techniques. Moreover, ML successfully classified the mammals using their acoustics, detecting endangered mammalian and fish species in a specific environment. Most importantly, using environmental data, the ML proved to be an effective method for predicting hypoxic conditions and the harmful algal bloom events, an important measurement in terms of environmental monitoring. Furthermore, machine learning was used to construct a number of databases for various species that will be useful to other researchers, and the creation of new algorithms will help the marine research community better comprehend the chemistry and biology of the ocean.

ML-9-标题 On Efficient Reinforcement Learning for Full-length Game of StarCraft II

Abstract: StarCraft II (SC2) poses a grand challenge for reinforcement learning (RL), of which the main difficulties include huge state space, varying action space, and a long time horizon. In this work, we investigate a set of RL techniques for the full-length game of StarCraft II. We investigate a hierarchical RL approach involving extracted macro-actions and a hierarchical architecture of neural networks. We investigate a curriculum transfer training procedure and train the agent on a single machine with 4 GPUs and 48 CPU threads. On a 64x64 map and using restrictive units, we achieve a win rate of 99% against the level-1 built-in AI. Through the curriculum transfer learning algorithm and a mixture of combat models, we achieve a 93% win rate against the most difficult non-cheating level built-in AI (level-7). In this extended version of the paper, we improve our architecture to train the agent against the cheating level AIs and achieve the win rate against the level-8, level-9, and level-10 AIs as 96%, 97%, and 94%, respectively. Our codes are at this https URL. To provide a baseline referring the AlphaStar for our work as well as the research and open-source community, we reproduce a scaled-down version of it, mini-AlphaStar (mAS). The latest version of mAS is 1.07, which can be trained on the raw action space which has 564 actions. It is designed to run training on a single common machine, by making the hyper-parameters adjustable. We then compare our work with mAS using the same resources and show that our method is more effective. The codes of mini-AlphaStar are at this https URL. We hope our study could shed some light on the future research of efficient reinforcement learning on SC2 and other large-scale games.

ML-10-标题 A Unified Perspective on Natural Gradient Variational Inference with Gaussian Mixture Models

Abstract: Variational inference with Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) enables learning of highly-tractable yet multi-modal approximations of intractable target distributions. GMMs are particular relevant for problem settings with up to a few hundred dimensions, for example in robotics, for modelling distributions over trajectories or joint distributions. This work focuses on two very effective methods for GMM-based variational inference that both employ independent natural gradient updates for the individual components and the categorical distribution of the weights. We show for the first time, that their derived updates are equivalent, although their practical implementations and theoretical guarantees differ. We identify several design choices that distinguish both approaches, namely with respect to sample selection, natural gradient estimation, stepsize adaptation, and whether trust regions are enforced or the number of components adapted. We perform extensive ablations on these design choices and show that they strongly affect the efficiency of the optimization and the variability of the learned distribution. Based on our insights, we propose a novel instantiation of our generalized framework, that combines first-order natural gradient estimates with trust-regions and component adaption, and significantly outperforms both previous methods in all our experiments.

ML-11-标题 An artificial neural network-based system for detecting machine failures using tiny sound data A case study

Abstract: In an effort to advocate the research for a deep learning-based machine failure detection system, we present a case study of our proposed system based on a tiny sound dataset. Our case study investigates a variational autoencoder (VAE) for augmenting a small drill sound dataset from Valmet AB. A Valmet dataset contains 134 sounds that have been divided into two categories: “Anomaly” and “Normal” recorded from a drilling machine in Valmet AB, a company in Sundsvall, Sweden that supplies equipment and processes for the production of biofuels. Using deep learning models to detect failure drills on such a small sound dataset is typically unsuccessful. We employed a VAE to increase the number of sounds in the tiny dataset by synthesizing new sounds from original sounds. The augmented dataset was created by combining these synthesized sounds with the original sounds. We used a high-pass filter with a passband frequency of 1000 Hz and a low-pass filter with a passband frequency of 22\kern 0.16667em000 Hz to pre-process sounds in the augmented dataset before transforming them to Mel spectrograms. The pre-trained 2D-CNN Alexnet was then trained using these Mel spectrograms. When compared to using the original tiny sound dataset to train pre-trained Alexnet, using the augmented sound dataset enhanced the CNN model’s classification results by 6.62%(94.12% when trained on the augmented dataset versus 87.5% when trained on the original dataset).

ML-12-标题 The complexity of unsupervised learning of lexicographic preferences

Abstract: This paper considers the task of learning users’ preferences on a combinatorial set of alternatives, as generally used by online configurators, for example. In many settings, only a set of selected alternatives during past interactions is available to the learner. Fargier et al. [2018] propose an approach to learn, in such a setting, a model of the users’ preferences that ranks previously chosen alternatives as high as possible; and an algorithm to learn, in this setting, a particular model of preferences: lexicographic preferences trees (LP-trees). In this paper, we study complexity-theoretical problems related to this approach. We give an upper bound on the sample complexity of learning an LP-tree, which is logarithmic in the number of attributes. We also prove that computing the LP tree that minimises the empirical risk can be done in polynomial time when restricted to the class of linear LP-trees.

ML-13-标题 Sequential Causal Effect Variational Autoencoder Time Series Causal Link Estimation under Hidden Confounding

Abstract: Estimating causal effects from observational data in the presence of latent variables sometimes leads to spurious relationships which can be misconceived as causal. This is an important issue in many fields such as finance and climate science. We propose Sequential Causal Effect Variational Autoencoder (SCEVAE), a novel method for time series causality analysis under hidden confounding. It is based on the CEVAE framework and recurrent neural networks. The causal link’s intensity of the confounded variables is calculated by using direct causal criteria based on Pearl’s do-calculus. We show the efficacy of SCEVAE by applying it to synthetic datasets with both linear and nonlinear causal links. Furthermore, we apply our method to real aerosol-cloud-climate observation data. We compare our approach to a time series deconfounding method with and without substitute confounders on the synthetic data. We demonstrate that our method performs better by comparing both methods to the ground truth. In the case of real data, we use the expert knowledge of causal links and show how the use of correct proxy variables aids data reconstruction.

ML-14-标题 Active Few-Shot Classification a New Paradigm for Data-Scarce Learning Settings

Abstract: We consider a novel formulation of the problem of Active Few-Shot Classification (AFSC) where the objective is to classify a small, initially unlabeled, dataset given a very restrained labeling budget. This problem can be seen as a rival paradigm to classical Transductive Few-Shot Classification (TFSC), as both these approaches are applicable in similar conditions. We first propose a methodology that combines statistical inference, and an original two-tier active learning strategy that fits well into this framework. We then adapt several standard vision benchmarks from the field of TFSC. Our experiments show the potential benefits of AFSC can be substantial, with gains in average weighted accuracy of up to 10% compared to state-of-the-art TFSC methods for the same labeling budget. We believe this new paradigm could lead to new developments and standards in data-scarce learning settings.

ML-15-标题 Optimizing Class Distribution in Memory for Multi-Label Online Continual Learning

Abstract: Online continual learning, especially when task identities and task boundaries are unavailable, is a challenging continual learning setting. One representative kind of methods for online continual learning is replay-based methods, in which a replay buffer called memory is maintained to keep a small part of past samples for overcoming catastrophic forgetting. When tackling with online continual learning, most existing replay-based methods focus on single-label problems in which each sample in the data stream has only one label. But multi-label problems may also happen in the online continual learning setting in which each sample may have more than one label. In the online setting with multi-label samples, the class distribution in data stream is typically highly imbalanced, and it is challenging to control class distribution in memory since changing the number of samples belonging to one class may affect the number of samples belonging to other classes. But class distribution in memory is critical for replay-based memory to get good performance, especially when the class distribution in data stream is highly imbalanced. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method, called optimizing class distribution in memory (OCDM), for multi-label online continual learning. OCDM formulates the memory update mechanism as an optimization problem and updates the memory by solving this problem. Experiments on two widely used multi-label datasets show that OCDM can control the class distribution in memory well and can outperform other state-of-the-art methods.

ML-16-标题 Smart Active Sampling to enhance Quality Assurance Efficiency

Abstract: We propose a new sampling strategy, called smart active sapling, for quality inspections outside the production line. Based on the principles of active learning a machine learning model decides which samples are sent to quality inspection. On the one hand, this minimizes the production of scrap parts due to earlier detection of quality violations. On the other hand, quality inspection costs are reduced for smooth operation.

ML-17-标题 A Preliminary Investigation of MLOps Practices in GitHub

Abstract: Background. The rapid and growing popularity of machine learning (ML) applications has led to an increasing interest in MLOps, that is, the practice of continuous integration and deployment (CI/CD) of ML-enabled systems. Aims. Since changes may affect not only the code but also the ML model parameters and the data themselves, the automation of traditional CI/CD needs to be extended to manage model retraining in production. Method. In this paper, we present an initial investigation of the MLOps practices implemented in a set of ML-enabled systems retrieved from GitHub, focusing on GitHub Actions and CML, two solutions to automate the development workflow. Results. Our preliminary results suggest that the adoption of MLOps workflows in open-source GitHub projects is currently rather limited. Conclusions. Issues are also identified, which can guide future research work.

ML-18-标题 A Robust and Explainable Data-Driven Anomaly Detection Approach For Power Electronics

Abstract: Timely and accurate detection of anomalies in power electronics is becoming increasingly critical for maintaining complex production systems. Robust and explainable strategies help decrease system downtime and preempt or mitigate infrastructure cyberattacks. This work begins by explaining the types of uncertainty present in current datasets and machine learning algorithm outputs. Three techniques for combating these uncertainties are then introduced and analyzed. We further present two anomaly detection and classification approaches, namely the Matrix Profile algorithm and anomaly transformer, which are applied in the context of a power electronic converter dataset. Specifically, the Matrix Profile algorithm is shown to be well suited as a generalizable approach for detecting real-time anomalies in streaming time-series data. The STUMPY python library implementation of the iterative Matrix Profile is used for the creation of the detector. A series of custom filters is created and added to the detector to tune its sensitivity, recall, and detection accuracy. Our numerical results show that, with simple parameter tuning, the detector provides high accuracy and performance in a variety of fault scenarios.

ML-19-标题 LEADER Learning Attention over Driving Behaviors for Planning under Uncertainty

Abstract: Uncertainty on human behaviors poses a significant challenge to autonomous driving in crowded urban environments. The partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) offer a principled framework for planning under uncertainty, often leveraging Monte Carlo sampling to achieve online performance for complex tasks. However, sampling also raises safety concerns by potentially missing critical events. To address this, we propose a new algorithm, LEarning Attention over Driving bEhavioRs (LEADER), that learns to attend to critical human behaviors during planning. LEADER learns a neural network generator to provide attention over human behaviors in real-time situations. It integrates the attention into a belief-space planner, using importance sampling to bias reasoning towards critical events. To train the algorithm, we let the attention generator and the planner form a min-max game. By solving the min-max game, LEADER learns to perform risk-aware planning without human labeling.

ML-20-标题 Relation Embedding based Graph Neural Networks for Handling Heterogeneous Graph

Abstract: Heterogeneous graph learning has drawn significant attentions in recent years, due to the success of graph neural networks (GNNs) and the broad applications of heterogeneous information networks. Various heterogeneous graph neural networks have been proposed to generalize GNNs for processing the heterogeneous graphs. Unfortunately, these approaches model the heterogeneity via various complicated modules. This paper aims to propose a simple yet efficient framework to make the homogeneous GNNs have adequate ability to handle heterogeneous graphs. Specifically, we propose Relation Embedding based Graph Neural Networks (RE-GNNs), which employ only one parameter per relation to embed the importance of edge type relations and self-loop connections. To optimize these relation embeddings and the other parameters simultaneously, a gradient scaling factor is proposed to constrain the embeddings to converge to suitable values. Besides, we theoretically demonstrate that our RE-GNNs have more expressive power than the meta-path based heterogeneous GNNs. Extensive experiments on the node classification tasks validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

ML-21-标题 Achieve the Minimum Width of Neural Networks for Universal Approximation

Abstract: The universal approximation property (UAP) of neural networks is fundamental for deep learning, and it is well known that wide neural networks are universal approximators of continuous functions within both the L^p norm and the continuous/uniform norm. However, the exact minimum width, w_\min , for the UAP has not been studied thoroughly. Recently, using a decoder-memorizer-encoder scheme, \citetPark2021Minimum found that w_\min = \max(d_x+1,d_y) for both the L^p -UAP of ReLU networks and the C -UAP of ReLU+STEP networks, where d_x,d_y are the input and output dimensions, respectively. In this paper, we consider neural networks with an arbitrary set of activation functions. We prove that both C -UAP and L^p -UAP for functions on compact domains share a universal lower bound of the minimal width; that is, w^_\min = \max(d_x,d_y) . In particular, the critical width, w^_\min , for L^p -UAP can be achieved by leaky-ReLU networks, provided that the input or output dimension is larger than one. Our construction is based on the approximation power of neural ordinary differential equations and the ability to approximate flow maps by neural networks. The nonmonotone or discontinuous activation functions case and the one-dimensional case are also discussed.

ML-22-标题 Do Current Multi-Task Optimization Methods in Deep Learning Even Help?

Abstract: Recent research has proposed a series of specialized optimization algorithms for deep multi-task models. It is often claimed that these multi-task optimization (MTO) methods yield solutions that are superior to the ones found by simply optimizing a weighted average of the task losses. In this paper, we perform large-scale experiments on a variety of language and vision tasks to examine the empirical validity of these claims. We show that, despite the added design and computational complexity of these algorithms, MTO methods do not yield any performance improvements beyond what is achievable via traditional optimization approaches. We highlight alternative strategies that consistently yield improvements to the performance profile and point out common training pitfalls that might cause suboptimal results. Finally, we outline challenges in reliably evaluating the performance of MTO algorithms and discuss potential solutions.

ML-23-标题 A Jensen-Shannon Divergence Based Loss Function for Bayesian Neural Networks

Abstract: Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is widely used for variational inference of Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs). However, the KL divergence has limitations such as unboundedness and asymmetry. We examine the Jensen-Shannon (JS) divergence that is more general, bounded, and symmetric. We formulate a novel loss function for BNNs based on the geometric JS divergence and show that the conventional KL divergence-based loss function is its special case. We evaluate the divergence part of the proposed loss function in a closed form for a Gaussian prior. For any other general prior, Monte Carlo approximations can be used. We provide algorithms for implementing both of these cases. We demonstrate that the proposed loss function offers an additional parameter that can be tuned to control the degree of regularisation. We derive the conditions under which the proposed loss function regularises better than the KL divergence-based loss function for Gaussian priors and posteriors. We demonstrate performance improvements over the state-of-the-art KL divergence-based BNN on the classification of a noisy CIFAR data set and a biased histopathology data set.

ML-24-标题 Convolutional Learning on Multigraphs

Abstract: Graph convolutional learning has led to many exciting discoveries in diverse areas. However, in some applications, traditional graphs are insufficient to capture the structure and intricacies of the data. In such scenarios, multigraphs arise naturally as discrete structures in which complex dynamics can be embedded. In this paper, we develop convolutional information processing on multigraphs and introduce convolutional multigraph neural networks (MGNNs). To capture the complex dynamics of information diffusion within and across each of the multigraph’s classes of edges, we formalize a convolutional signal processing model, defining the notions of signals, filtering, and frequency representations on multigraphs. Leveraging this model, we develop a multigraph learning architecture, including a sampling procedure to reduce computational complexity. The introduced architecture is applied towards optimal wireless resource allocation and a hate speech localization task, offering improved performance over traditional graph neural networks.

ML-25-标题 StyleTime Style Transfer for Synthetic Time Series Generation

Abstract: Neural style transfer is a powerful computer vision technique that can incorporate the artistic “style” of one image to the “content” of another. The underlying theory behind the approach relies on the assumption that the style of an image is represented by the Gram matrix of its features, which is typically extracted from pre-trained convolutional neural networks (e.g., VGG-19). This idea does not straightforwardly extend to time series stylization since notions of style for two-dimensional images are not analogous to notions of style for one-dimensional time series. In this work, a novel formulation of time series style transfer is proposed for the purpose of synthetic data generation and enhancement. We introduce the concept of stylized features for time series, which is directly related to the time series realism properties, and propose a novel stylization algorithm, called StyleTime, that uses explicit feature extraction techniques to combine the underlying content (trend) of one time series with the style (distributional properties) of another. Further, we discuss evaluation metrics, and compare our work to existing state-of-the-art time series generation and augmentation schemes. To validate the effectiveness of our methods, we use stylized synthetic data as a means for data augmentation to improve the performance of recurrent neural network models on several forecasting tasks.

Abstract: Meta-gradients provide a general approach for optimizing the meta-parameters of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. Estimation of meta-gradients is central to the performance of these meta-algorithms, and has been studied in the setting of MAML-style short-horizon meta-RL problems. In this context, prior work has investigated the estimation of the Hessian of the RL objective, as well as tackling the problem of credit assignment to pre-adaptation behavior by making a sampling correction. However, we show that Hessian estimation, implemented for example by DiCE and its variants, always adds bias and can also add variance to meta-gradient estimation. Meanwhile, meta-gradient estimation has been studied less in the important long-horizon setting, where backpropagation through the full inner optimization trajectories is not feasible. We study the bias and variance tradeoff arising from truncated backpropagation and sampling correction, and additionally compare to evolution strategies, which is a recently popular alternative strategy to long-horizon meta-learning. While prior work implicitly chooses points in this bias-variance space, we disentangle the sources of bias and variance and present an empirical study that relates existing estimators to each other.

ML-27-标题 Scalable Gaussian Process Hyperparameter Optimization via Coverage Regularization

Abstract: Gaussian processes (GPs) are Bayesian non-parametric models popular in a variety of applications due to their accuracy and native uncertainty quantification (UQ). Tuning GP hyperparameters is critical to ensure the validity of prediction accuracy and uncertainty; uniquely estimating multiple hyperparameters in, e.g. the Matern kernel can also be a significant challenge. Moreover, training GPs on large-scale datasets is a highly active area of research: traditional maximum likelihood hyperparameter training requires quadratic memory to form the covariance matrix and has cubic training complexity. To address the scalable hyperparameter tuning problem, we present a novel algorithm which estimates the smoothness and length-scale parameters in the Matern kernel in order to improve robustness of the resulting prediction uncertainties. Using novel loss functions similar to those in conformal prediction algorithms in the computational framework provided by the hyperparameter estimation algorithm MuyGPs, we achieve improved UQ over leave-one-out likelihood maximization while maintaining a high degree of scalability as demonstrated in numerical experiments.

ML-28-标题 Environment Optimization for Multi-Agent Navigation

Abstract: Traditional approaches to the design of multi-agent navigation algorithms consider the environment as a fixed constraint, despite the obvious influence of spatial constraints on agents’ performance. Yet hand-designing improved environment layouts and structures is inefficient and potentially expensive. The goal of this paper is to consider the environment as a decision variable in a system-level optimization problem, where both agent performance and environment cost can be accounted for. We begin by proposing a novel environment optimization problem. We show, through formal proofs, under which conditions the environment can change while guaranteeing completeness (i.e., all agents reach their navigation goals). Our solution leverages a model-free reinforcement learning approach. In order to accommodate a broad range of implementation scenarios, we include both online and offline optimization, and both discrete and continuous environment representations. Numerical results corroborate our theoretical findings and validate our approach.

ML-29-标题 Minimizing Human Assistance Augmenting a Single Demonstration for Deep Reinforcement Learning

Abstract: The use of human demonstrations in reinforcement learning has proven to significantly improve agent performance. However, any requirement for a human to manually ‘teach’ the model is somewhat antithetical to the goals of reinforcement learning. This paper attempts to minimize human involvement in the learning process while still retaining the performance advantages by using a single human example collected through a simple-to-use virtual reality simulation to assist with RL training. Our method augments a single demonstration to generate numerous human-like demonstrations that, when combined with Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients and Hindsight Experience Replay (DDPG + HER), significantly improve training time on simple tasks and allows the agent to solve a complex task (block stacking) that DDPG + HER alone cannot solve. The model achieves this significant training advantage using a single human example, requiring less than a minute of human input.

ML-30-标题 Artificial Intelligence in Material Engineering A review on applications of AI in Material Engineering

Abstract: Recently, there has been extensive use of artificial Intelligence (AI) in the field of material engineering. This can be attributed to the development of high performance computing and thereby feasibility to test deep learning models with large parameters. In this article we tried to review some of the latest developments in the applications of AI in material engineering.

ML-31-标题 Multidimensional Interactive Fixed-Effects

Abstract: This paper studies a linear and additively separable model for multidimensional panel data of three or more dimensions with unobserved interactive fixed effects. Two approaches are considered to account for these unobserved interactive fixed-effects when estimating coefficients on the observed covariates. First, the model is embedded within the standard two-dimensional panel framework and restrictions are derived under which the factor structure methods in Bai (2009) lead to consistent estimation of model parameters. The second approach considers group fixed-effects and kernel methods that are more robust to the multidimensional nature of the problem. Theoretical results and simulations show the benefit of standard two-dimensional panel methods when the structure of the interactive fixed-effect term is known, but also highlight how the group fixed-effects and kernel methods perform well without knowledge of this structure. The methods are implemented to estimate the demand elasticity for beer under a handful of models for demand.

ML-32-标题 Exact conservation laws for neural network integrators of dynamical systems

Abstract: The solution of time dependent differential equations with neural networks has attracted a lot of attention recently. The central idea is to learn the laws that govern the evolution of the solution from data, which might be polluted with random noise. However, in contrast to other machine learning applications, usually a lot is known about the system at hand. For example, for many dynamical systems physical quantities such as energy or (angular) momentum are exactly conserved. Hence, the neural network has to learn these conservation laws from data and they will only be satisfied approximately due to finite training time and random noise. In this paper we present an alternative approach which uses Noether’s Theorem to inherently incorporate conservation laws into the architecture of the neural network. We demonstrate that this leads to better predictions for three model systems: the motion of a non-relativistic particle in a three-dimensional Newtonian gravitational potential, the motion of a massive relativistic particle in the Schwarzschild metric and a system of two interacting particles in four dimensions.

ML-33-标题 Differentiable physics-enabled closure modeling for Burgers turbulence

Abstract: Data-driven turbulence modeling is experiencing a surge in interest following algorithmic and hardware developments in the data sciences. We discuss an approach using the differentiable physics paradigm that combines known physics with machine learning to develop closure models for Burgers’ turbulence. We consider the 1D Burgers system as a prototypical test problem for modeling the unresolved terms in advection-dominated turbulence problems. We train a series of models that incorporate varying degrees of physical assumptions on an a posteriori loss function to test the efficacy of models across a range of system parameters, including viscosity, time, and grid resolution. We find that constraining models with inductive biases in the form of partial differential equations that contain known physics or existing closure approaches produces highly data-efficient, accurate, and generalizable models, outperforming state-of-the-art baselines. Addition of structure in the form of physics information also brings a level of interpretability to the models, potentially offering a stepping stone to the future of closure modeling.

ML-34-标题 Power Management in Smart Residential Building with Deep Learning Model for Occupancy Detection by Usage Pattern of Electric Appliances

Abstract: With the growth of smart building applications, occupancy information in residential buildings is becoming more and more significant. In the context of the smart buildings’ paradigm, this kind of information is required for a wide range of purposes, including enhancing energy efficiency and occupant comfort. In this study, occupancy detection in residential building is implemented using deep learning based on technical information of electric appliances. To this end, a novel approach of occupancy detection for smart residential building system is proposed. The dataset of electric appliances, sensors, light, and HVAC, which is measured by smart metering system and is collected from 50 households, is used for simulations. To classify the occupancy among datasets, the support vector machine and autoencoder algorithm are used. Confusion matrix is utilized for accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 to demonstrate the comparative performance of the proposed method in occupancy detection. The proposed algorithm achieves occupancy detection using technical information of electric appliances by 95.7~98.4%. To validate occupancy detection data, principal component analysis and the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm are employed. Power consumption with renewable energy system is reduced to 11.1~13.1% in smart buildings by using occupancy detection.

ML-35-标题 Error Mitigation-Aided Optimization of Parameterized Quantum Circuits Convergence Analysis

Abstract: Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) offer the most promising path to obtaining quantum advantages via noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) processors. Such systems leverage classical optimization to tune the parameters of a parameterized quantum circuit (PQC). The goal is minimizing a cost function that depends on measurement outputs obtained from the PQC. Optimization is typically implemented via stochastic gradient descent (SGD). On NISQ computers, gate noise due to imperfections and decoherence affects the stochastic gradient estimates by introducing a bias. Quantum error mitigation (QEM) techniques can reduce the estimation bias without requiring any increase in the number of qubits, but they in turn cause an increase in the variance of the gradient estimates. This work studies the impact of quantum gate noise on the convergence of SGD for the variational eigensolver (VQE), a fundamental instance of VQAs. The main goal is ascertaining conditions under which QEM can enhance the performance of SGD for VQEs. It is shown that quantum gate noise induces a non-zero error-floor on the convergence error of SGD (evaluated with respect to a reference noiseless PQC), which depends on the number of noisy gates, the strength of the noise, as well as the eigenspectrum of the observable being measured and minimized. In contrast, with QEM, any arbitrarily small error can be obtained. Furthermore, for error levels attainable with or without QEM, QEM can reduce the number of required iterations, but only as long as the quantum noise level is sufficiently small, and a sufficiently large number of measurements is allowed at each SGD iteration. Numerical examples for a max-cut problem corroborate the main theoretical findings.

ML-36-标题 Image Classification using Sequence of Pixels

Abstract: This study compares sequential image classification methods based on recurrent neural networks. We describe methods based on recurrent neural networks such as Long-Short-Term memory(LSTM), bidirectional Long-Short-Term memory(BiLSTM) architectures, etc. We also review the state-of-the-art sequential image classification architectures. We mainly focus on LSTM, BiLSTM, temporal convolution network, and independent recurrent neural network architecture in the study. It is known that RNN lacks in learning long-term dependencies in the input sequence. We use a simple feature construction method using orthogonal Ramanujan periodic transform on the input sequence. Experiments demonstrate that if these features are given to LSTM or BiLSTM networks, the performance increases drastically. Our focus in this study is to increase the training accuracy simultaneously reducing the training time for the LSTM and BiLSTM architecture, but not on pushing the state-of-the-art results, so we use simple LSTM/BiLSTM architecture. We compare sequential input with the constructed feature as input to single layer LSTM and BiLSTM network for MNIST and CIFAR datasets. We observe that sequential input to the LSTM network with 128 hidden unit training for five epochs results in training accuracy of 33% whereas constructed features as input to the same LSTM network results in training accuracy of 90% with 1/3 lesser time.

ML-37-标题 Computational Discovery of Energy-Efficient Heat Treatment for Microstructure Design using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is employed to develop autonomously optimized and custom-designed heat-treatment processes that are both, microstructure-sensitive and energy efficient. Different from conventional supervised machine learning, DRL does not rely on static neural network training from data alone, but a learning agent autonomously develops optimal solutions, based on reward and penalty elements, with reduced or no supervision. In our approach, a temperature-dependent Allen-Cahn model for phase transformation is used as the environment for the DRL agent, serving as the model world in which it gains experience and takes autonomous decisions. The agent of the DRL algorithm is controlling the temperature of the system, as a model furnace for heat-treatment of alloys. Microstructure goals are defined for the agent based on the desired microstructure of the phases. After training, the agent can generate temperature-time profiles for a variety of initial microstructure states to reach the final desired microstructure state. The agent’s performance and the physical meaning of the heat-treatment profiles generated are investigated in detail. In particular, the agent is capable of controlling the temperature to reach the desired microstructure starting from a variety of initial conditions. This capability of the agent in handling a variety of conditions paves the way for using such an approach also for recycling-oriented heat treatment process design where the initial composition can vary from batch to batch, due to impurity intrusion, and also for the design of energy-efficient heat treatments. For testing this hypothesis, an agent without penalty on the total consumed energy is compared with one that considers energy costs. The energy cost penalty is imposed as an additional criterion on the agent for finding the optimal temperature-time profile.

ML-38-标题 Assessing Robustness of EEG Representations under Data-shifts via Latent Space and Uncertainty Analysis

Abstract: The recent availability of large datasets in bio-medicine has inspired the development of representation learning methods for multiple healthcare applications. Despite advances in predictive performance, the clinical utility of such methods is limited when exposed to real-world data. Here we develop model diagnostic measures to detect potential pitfalls during deployment without assuming access to external data. Specifically, we focus on modeling realistic data shifts in electrophysiological signals (EEGs) via data transforms, and extend the conventional task-based evaluations with analyses of a) model’s latent space and b) predictive uncertainty, under these transforms. We conduct experiments on multiple EEG feature encoders and two clinically relevant downstream tasks using publicly available large-scale clinical EEGs. Within this experimental setting, our results suggest that measures of latent space integrity and model uncertainty under the proposed data shifts may help anticipate performance degradation during deployment.

ML-39-标题 DFX A Low-latency Multi-FPGA Appliance for Accelerating Transformer-based Text Generation

Abstract: Transformer is a deep learning language model widely used for natural language processing (NLP) services in datacenters. Among transformer models, Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) has achieved remarkable performance in text generation, or natural language generation (NLG), which needs the processing of a large input context in the summarization stage, followed by the generation stage that produces a single word at a time. The conventional platforms such as GPU are specialized for the parallel processing of large inputs in the summarization stage, but their performance significantly degrades in the generation stage due to its sequential characteristic. Therefore, an efficient hardware platform is required to address the high latency caused by the sequential characteristic of text generation. In this paper, we present DFX, a multi-FPGA acceleration appliance that executes GPT-2 model inference end-to-end with low latency and high throughput in both summarization and generation stages. DFX uses model parallelism and optimized dataflow that is model-and-hardware-aware for fast simultaneous workload execution among devices. Its compute cores operate on custom instructions and provide GPT-2 operations end-to-end. We implement the proposed hardware architecture on four Xilinx Alveo U280 FPGAs and utilize all of the channels of the high bandwidth memory (HBM) and the maximum number of compute resources for high hardware efficiency. DFX achieves 5.58x speedup and 3.99x energy efficiency over four NVIDIA V100 GPUs on the modern GPT-2 model. DFX is also 8.21x more cost-effective than the GPU appliance, suggesting that it is a promising solution for text generation workloads in cloud datacenters.

### 计算机视觉

CV-0-标题 Lightweight Transformers for Human Activity Recognition on Mobile Devices

Abstract: Human Activity Recognition (HAR) on mobile devices has shown to be achievable with lightweight neural models learned from data generated by the user’s inertial measurement units (IMUs). Most approaches for instanced-based HAR have used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs), or a combination of the two to achieve state-of-the-art results with real-time performances. Recently, the Transformers architecture in the language processing domain and then in the vision domain has pushed further the state-of-the-art over classical architectures. However, such Transformers architecture is heavyweight in computing resources, which is not well suited for embedded applications of HAR that can be found in the pervasive computing domain. In this study, we present Human Activity Recognition Transformer (HART), a lightweight, sensor-wise transformer architecture that has been specifically adapted to the domain of the IMUs embedded on mobile devices. Our experiments on HAR tasks with several publicly available datasets show that HART uses fewer FLoating-point Operations Per Second (FLOPS) and parameters while outperforming current state-of-the-art results. Furthermore, we present evaluations across various architectures on their performances in heterogeneous environments and show that our models can better generalize on different sensing devices or on-body positions.

CV-1-标题 Adaptive-SpikeNet Event-based Optical Flow Estimation using Spiking Neural Networks with Learnable Neuronal Dynamics

Abstract: Event-based cameras have recently shown great potential for high-speed motion estimation owing to their ability to capture temporally rich information asynchronously. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), with their neuro-inspired event-driven processing can efficiently handle such asynchronous data, while neuron models such as the leaky-integrate and fire (LIF) can keep track of the quintessential timing information contained in the inputs. SNNs achieve this by maintaining a dynamic state in the neuron memory, retaining important information while forgetting redundant data over time. Thus, we posit that SNNs would allow for better performance on sequential regression tasks compared to similarly sized Analog Neural Networks (ANNs). However, deep SNNs are difficult to train due to vanishing spikes at later layers. To that effect, we propose an adaptive fully-spiking framework with learnable neuronal dynamics to alleviate the spike vanishing problem. We utilize surrogate gradient-based backpropagation through time (BPTT) to train our deep SNNs from scratch. We validate our approach for the task of optical flow estimation on the Multi-Vehicle Stereo Event-Camera (MVSEC) dataset and the DSEC-Flow dataset. Our experiments on these datasets show an average reduction of 13% in average endpoint error (AEE) compared to state-of-the-art ANNs. We also explore several down-scaled models and observe that our SNN models consistently outperform similarly sized ANNs offering 10%-16% lower AEE. These results demonstrate the importance of SNNs for smaller models and their suitability at the edge. In terms of efficiency, our SNNs offer substantial savings in network parameters (48x) and computational energy (51x) while attaining ~10% lower EPE compared to the state-of-the-art ANN implementations.

CV-2-标题 On the Shift Invariance of Max Pooling Feature Maps in Convolutional Neural Networks

Abstract: In this paper, we aim to improve the mathematical interpretability of convolutional neural networks for image classification. When trained on natural image datasets, such networks tend to learn parameters in the first layer that closely resemble oriented Gabor filters. By leveraging the properties of discrete Gabor-like convolutions, we prove that, under specific conditions, feature maps computed by the subsequent max pooling operator tend to approximate the modulus of complex Gabor-like coefficients, and as such, are stable with respect to certain input shifts. We then compute a probabilistic measure of shift invariance for these layers. More precisely, we show that some filters, depending on their frequency and orientation, are more likely than others to produce stable image representations. We experimentally validate our theory by considering a deterministic feature extractor based on the dual-tree wavelet packet transform, a particular case of discrete Gabor-like decomposition. We demonstrate a strong correlation between shift invariance on the one hand and similarity with complex modulus on the other hand.

CV-3-标题 Catoptric Light can be Dangerous Effective Physical-World Attack by Natural Phenomenon

Abstract: Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved great success in many tasks. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the robustness of advanced DNNs. The traditional methods use stickers as physical perturbations to fool the classifiers, which is difficult to achieve stealthiness and there exists printing loss. Some new types of physical attacks use light beam to perform attacks (e.g., laser, projector), whose optical patterns are artificial rather than natural. In this work, we study a new type of physical attack, called adversarial catoptric light (AdvCL), in which adversarial perturbations are generated by common natural phenomena, catoptric light, to achieve stealthy and naturalistic adversarial attacks against advanced DNNs in physical environments. Carefully designed experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in simulated and real-world environments. The attack success rate is 94.90% in a subset of ImageNet and 83.50% in the real-world environment. We also discuss some of AdvCL’s transferability and defense strategy against this attack.

CV-4-标题 Semantic scene descriptions as an objective of human vision

Abstract: Interpreting the meaning of a visual scene requires not only identification of its constituent objects, but also a rich semantic characterization of object interrelations. Here, we study the neural mechanisms underlying visuo-semantic transformations by applying modern computational techniques to a large-scale 7T fMRI dataset of human brain responses elicited by complex natural scenes. Using semantic embeddings obtained by applying linguistic deep learning models to human-generated scene descriptions, we identify a widely distributed network of brain regions that encode semantic scene descriptions. Importantly, these semantic embeddings better explain activity in these regions than traditional object category labels. In addition, they are effective predictors of activity despite the fact that the participants did not actively engage in a semantic task, suggesting that visuo-semantic transformations are a default mode of vision. In support of this view, we then show that highly accurate reconstructions of scene captions can be directly linearly decoded from patterns of brain activity. Finally, a recurrent convolutional neural network trained on semantic embeddings further outperforms semantic embeddings in predicting brain activity, providing a mechanistic model of the brain’s visuo-semantic transformations. Together, these experimental and computational results suggest that transforming visual input into rich semantic scene descriptions may be a central objective of the visual system, and that focusing efforts on this new objective may lead to improved models of visual information processing in the human brain.

CV-6-标题 Multilevel Robustness for 2D Vector Field Feature Tracking Selection and Comparison

Abstract: Critical point tracking is a core topic in scientific visualization for understanding the dynamic behavior of time-varying vector field data. The topological notion of robustness has been introduced recently to quantify the structural stability of critical points, that is, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation to the vector field necessary to cancel it. A theoretical basis has been established previously that relates critical point tracking with the notion of robustness, in particular, critical points could be tracked based on their closeness in stability, measured by robustness, instead of just distance proximities within the domain. However, in practice, the computation of classic robustness may produce artifacts when a critical point is close to the boundary of the domain; thus, we do not have a complete picture of the vector field behavior within its local neighborhood. To alleviate these issues, we introduce a multilevel robustness framework for the study of 2D time-varying vector fields. We compute the robustness of critical points across varying neighborhoods to capture the multiscale nature of the data and to mitigate the boundary effect suffered by the classic robustness computation. We demonstrate via experiments that such a new notion of robustness can be combined seamlessly with existing feature tracking algorithms to improve the visual interpretability of vector fields in terms of feature tracking, selection, and comparison for large-scale scientific simulations. We observe, for the first time, that the minimum multilevel robustness is highly correlated with physical quantities used by domain scientists in studying a real-world tropical cyclone dataset. Such observation helps to increase the physical interpretability of robustness.

CV-7-标题 Multivariate Wasserstein Functional Connectivity for Autism Screening

Abstract: Most approaches to the estimation of brain functional connectivity from the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data rely on computing some measure of statistical dependence, or more generally, a distance between univariate representative time series of regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of multiple voxels. However, summarizing a ROI’s multiple time series with its mean or the first principal component (1PC) may result to the loss of information as, for example, 1PC explains only a small fraction of variance of the multivariate signal of the neuronal activity. We propose to compare ROIs directly, without the use of representative time series, defining a new measure of multivariate connectivity between ROIs, not necessarily consisting of the same number of voxels, based on the Wasserstein distance. We assess the proposed Wasserstein functional connectivity measure on the autism screening task, demonstrating its superiority over commonly used univariate and multivariate functional connectivity measures.

CV-8-标题 Edge-oriented Implicit Neural Representation with Channel Tuning

Abstract: Implicit neural representation, which expresses an image as a continuous function rather than a discrete grid form, is widely used for image processing. Despite its outperforming results, there are still remaining limitations on restoring clear shapes of a given signal such as the edges of an image. In this paper, we propose Gradient Magnitude Adjustment algorithm which calculates the gradient of an image for training the implicit representation. In addition, we propose Edge-oriented Representation Network (EoREN) that can reconstruct the image with clear edges by fitting gradient information (Edge-oriented module). Furthermore, we add Channel-tuning module to adjust the distribution of given signals so that it solves a chronic problem of fitting gradients. By separating backpropagation paths of the two modules, EoREN can learn true color of the image without hindering the role for gradients. We qualitatively show that our model can reconstruct complex signals and demonstrate general reconstruction ability of our model with quantitative results.

CV-9-标题 Dynamic camera alignment optimization problem based on Fractal Decomposition based Algorithm

Abstract: In this work, we tackle the Dynamic Optimization Problem (DOP) of IA in a real-world application using a Dynamic Optimization Algorithm (DOA) called Fractal Decomposition Algorithm (FDA), introduced by recently. We used FDA to perform IA on CCTV camera feed from a tunnel. As the camera viewpoint can change by multiple reasons such as wind, maintenance, etc. the alignment is required to guarantee the correct functioning of video-based traffic security system.

CV-10-标题 Rate-Distortion in Image Coding for Machines

Abstract: In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in transmission of images to remote servers specifically for the purpose of computer vision. In many applications, such as surveillance, images are mostly transmitted for automated analysis, and rarely seen by humans. Using traditional compression for this scenario has been shown to be inefficient in terms of bit-rate, likely due to the focus on human based distortion metrics. Thus, it is important to create specific image coding methods for joint use by humans and machines. One way to create the machine side of such a codec is to perform feature matching of some intermediate layer in a Deep Neural Network performing the machine task. In this work, we explore the effects of the layer choice used in training a learnable codec for humans and machines. We prove, using the data processing inequality, that matching features from deeper layers is preferable in the sense of rate-distortion. Next, we confirm our findings empirically by re-training an existing model for scalable human-machine coding. In our experiments we show the trade-off between the human and machine sides of such a scalable model, and discuss the benefit of using deeper layers for training in that regard.

CV-11-标题 T3VIP Transformation-based 3D Video Prediction

Abstract: For autonomous skill acquisition, robots have to learn about the physical rules governing the 3D world dynamics from their own past experience to predict and reason about plausible future outcomes. To this end, we propose a transformation-based 3D video prediction (T3VIP) approach that explicitly models the 3D motion by decomposing a scene into its object parts and predicting their corresponding rigid transformations. Our model is fully unsupervised, captures the stochastic nature of the real world, and the observational cues in image and point cloud domains constitute its learning signals. To fully leverage all the 2D and 3D observational signals, we equip our model with automatic hyperparameter optimization (HPO) to interpret the best way of learning from them. To the best of our knowledge, our model is the first generative model that provides an RGB-D video prediction of the future for a static camera. Our extensive evaluation with simulated and real-world datasets demonstrates that our formulation leads to interpretable 3D models that predict future depth videos while achieving on-par performance with 2D models on RGB video prediction. Moreover, we demonstrate that our model outperforms 2D baselines on visuomotor control. Videos, code, dataset, and pre-trained models are available at this http URL.

CV-12-标题 Meteorological Satellite Images Prediction Based on Deep Multi-scales Extrapolation Fusion

Abstract: Meteorological satellite imagery is critical for meteorologists. The data have played an important role in monitoring and analyzing weather and climate changes. However, satellite imagery is a kind of observation data and exists a significant time delay when transmitting the data back to Earth. It is important to make accurate predictions for meteorological satellite images, especially the nowcasting prediction up to 2 hours ahead. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the research of nowcasting prediction applications of weather radar images based on deep learning. Compared to the weather radar images prediction problem, the main challenge for meteorological satellite images prediction is the large-scale observation areas and therefore the large sizes of the observation products. Here we present a deep multi-scales extrapolation fusion method, to address the challenge of the meteorological satellite images nowcasting prediction. First, we downsample the original satellite images dataset with large size to several images datasets with smaller resolutions, then we use a deep spatiotemporal sequences prediction method to generate the multi-scales prediction images with different resolutions separately. Second, we fuse the multi-scales prediction results to the targeting prediction images with the original size by a conditional generative adversarial network. The experiments based on the FY-4A meteorological satellite data show that the proposed method can generate realistic prediction images that effectively capture the evolutions of the weather systems in detail. We believe that the general idea of this work can be potentially applied to other spatiotemporal sequence prediction tasks with a large size.

CV-13-标题 An Overview of Violence Detection Techniques Current Challenges and Future Directions

Abstract: The Big Video Data generated in today’s smart cities has raised concerns from its purposeful usage perspective, where surveillance cameras, among many others are the most prominent resources to contribute to the huge volumes of data, making its automated analysis a difficult task in terms of computation and preciseness. Violence Detection (VD), broadly plunging under Action and Activity recognition domain, is used to analyze Big Video data for anomalous actions incurred due to humans. The VD literature is traditionally based on manually engineered features, though advancements to deep learning based standalone models are developed for real-time VD analysis. This paper focuses on overview of deep sequence learning approaches along with localization strategies of the detected violence. This overview also dives into the initial image processing and machine learning-based VD literature and their possible advantages such as efficiency against the current complex models. Furthermore,the datasets are discussed, to provide an analysis of the current models, explaining their pros and cons with future directions in VD domain derived from an in-depth analysis of the previous methods.

CV-14-标题 PNeRF Probabilistic Neural Scene Representations for Uncertain 3D Visual Mapping

Abstract: Recently neural scene representations have provided very impressive results for representing 3D scenes visually, however, their study and progress have mainly been limited to visualization of virtual models in computer graphics or scene reconstruction in computer vision without explicitly accounting for sensor and pose uncertainty. Using this novel scene representation in robotics applications, however, would require accounting for this uncertainty in the neural map. The aim of this paper is therefore to propose a novel method for training \em probabilistic neural scene representations with uncertain training data that could enable the inclusion of these representations in robotics applications. Acquiring images using cameras or depth sensors contains inherent uncertainty, and furthermore, the camera poses used for learning a 3D model are also imperfect. If these measurements are used for training without accounting for their uncertainty, then the resulting models are non-optimal, and the resulting scene representations are likely to contain artifacts such as blur and un-even geometry. In this work, the problem of uncertainty integration to the learning process is investigated by focusing on training with uncertain information in a probabilistic manner. The proposed method involves explicitly augmenting the training likelihood with an uncertainty term such that the learnt probability distribution of the network is minimized with respect to the training uncertainty. It will be shown that this leads to more accurate image rendering quality, in addition to more precise and consistent geometry. Validation has been carried out on both synthetic and real datasets showing that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The results show notably that the proposed method is capable of rendering novel high-quality views even when the training data is limited.

CV-15-标题 Image-to-Image Translation for Autonomous Driving from Coarsely-Aligned Image Pairs

Abstract: A self-driving car must be able to reliably handle adverse weather conditions (e.g., snowy) to operate safely. In this paper, we investigate the idea of turning sensor inputs (i.e., images) captured in an adverse condition into a benign one (i.e., sunny), upon which the downstream tasks (e.g., semantic segmentation) can attain high accuracy. Prior work primarily formulates this as an unpaired image-to-image translation problem due to the lack of paired images captured under the exact same camera poses and semantic layouts. While perfectly-aligned images are not available, one can easily obtain coarsely-paired images. For instance, many people drive the same routes daily in both good and adverse weather; thus, images captured at close-by GPS locations can form a pair. Though data from repeated traversals are unlikely to capture the same foreground objects, we posit that they provide rich contextual information to supervise the image translation model. To this end, we propose a novel training objective leveraging coarsely-aligned image pairs. We show that our coarsely-aligned training scheme leads to a better image translation quality and improved downstream tasks, such as semantic segmentation, monocular depth estimation, and visual localization.

CV-16-标题 View-Invariant Skeleton-based Action Recognition via Global-Local Contrastive Learning

Abstract: Skeleton-based human action recognition has been drawing more interest recently due to its low sensitivity to appearance changes and the accessibility of more skeleton data. However, even the 3D skeletons captured in practice are still sensitive to the viewpoint and direction gave the occlusion of different human-body joints and the errors in human joint localization. Such view variance of skeleton data may significantly affect the performance of action recognition. To address this issue, we propose in this paper a new view-invariant representation learning approach, without any manual action labeling, for skeleton-based human action recognition. Specifically, we leverage the multi-view skeleton data simultaneously taken for the same person in the network training, by maximizing the mutual information between the representations extracted from different views, and then propose a global-local contrastive loss to model the multi-scale co-occurrence relationships in both spatial and temporal domains. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to the view difference of the input skeleton data and significantly boosts the performance of unsupervised skeleton-based human action methods, resulting in new state-of-the-art accuracies on two challenging multi-view benchmarks of PKUMMD and NTU RGB+D.

CV-17-标题 I-SPLIT Deep Network Interpretability for Split Computing

Abstract: This work makes a substantial step in the field of split computing, i.e., how to split a deep neural network to host its early part on an embedded device and the rest on a server. So far, potential split locations have been identified exploiting uniquely architectural aspects, i.e., based on the layer sizes. Under this paradigm, the efficacy of the split in terms of accuracy can be evaluated only after having performed the split and retrained the entire pipeline, making an exhaustive evaluation of all the plausible splitting points prohibitive in terms of time. Here we show that not only the architecture of the layers does matter, but the importance of the neurons contained therein too. A neuron is important if its gradient with respect to the correct class decision is high. It follows that a split should be applied right after a layer with a high density of important neurons, in order to preserve the information flowing until then. Upon this idea, we propose Interpretable Split (I-SPLIT): a procedure that identifies the most suitable splitting points by providing a reliable prediction on how well this split will perform in terms of classification accuracy, beforehand of its effective implementation. As a further major contribution of I-SPLIT, we show that the best choice for the splitting point on a multiclass categorization problem depends also on which specific classes the network has to deal with. Exhaustive experiments have been carried out on two networks, VGG16 and ResNet-50, and three datasets, Tiny-Imagenet-200, notMNIST, and Chest X-Ray Pneumonia. The source code is available at this https URL.

CV-18-标题 Multi-Granularity Graph Pooling for Video-based Person Re-Identification

Abstract: The video-based person re-identification (ReID) aims to identify the given pedestrian video sequence across multiple non-overlapping cameras. To aggregate the temporal and spatial features of the video samples, the graph neural networks (GNNs) are introduced. However, existing graph-based models, like STGCN, perform the \textitmean/\textitmax pooling on node features to obtain the graph representation, which neglect the graph topology and node importance. In this paper, we propose the graph pooling network (GPNet) to learn the multi-granularity graph representation for the video retrieval, where the \textitgraph pooling layer is implemented to downsample the graph. We first construct a multi-granular graph, whose node features denote image embedding learned by backbone, and edges are established between the temporal and Euclidean neighborhood nodes. We then implement multiple graph convolutional layers to perform the neighborhood aggregation on the graphs. To downsample the graph, we propose a multi-head full attention graph pooling (MHFAPool) layer, which integrates the advantages of existing node clustering and node selection pooling methods. Specifically, MHFAPool takes the main eigenvector of full attention matrix as the aggregation coefficients to involve the global graph information in each pooled nodes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our GPNet achieves the competitive results on four widely-used datasets, i.e., MARS, DukeMTMC-VideoReID, iLIDS-VID and PRID-2011.

CV-19-标题 Pose-Aided Video-based Person Re-Identification via Recurrent Graph Convolutional Network

Abstract: Existing methods for video-based person re-identification (ReID) mainly learn the appearance feature of a given pedestrian via a feature extractor and a feature aggregator. However, the appearance models would fail when different pedestrians have similar appearances. Considering that different pedestrians have different walking postures and body proportions, we propose to learn the discriminative pose feature beyond the appearance feature for video retrieval. Specifically, we implement a two-branch architecture to separately learn the appearance feature and pose feature, and then concatenate them together for inference. To learn the pose feature, we first detect the pedestrian pose in each frame through an off-the-shelf pose detector, and construct a temporal graph using the pose sequence. We then exploit a recurrent graph convolutional network (RGCN) to learn the node embeddings of the temporal pose graph, which devises a global information propagation mechanism to simultaneously achieve the neighborhood aggregation of intra-frame nodes and message passing among inter-frame graphs. Finally, we propose a dual-attention method consisting of node-attention and time-attention to obtain the temporal graph representation from the node embeddings, where the self-attention mechanism is employed to learn the importance of each node and each frame. We verify the proposed method on three video-based ReID datasets, i.e., Mars, DukeMTMC and iLIDS-VID, whose experimental results demonstrate that the learned pose feature can effectively improve the performance of existing appearance models.

CV-20-标题 Towards Complete-View and High-Level Pose-based Gait Recognition

Abstract: The model-based gait recognition methods usually adopt the pedestrian walking postures to identify human beings. However, existing methods did not explicitly resolve the large intra-class variance of human pose due to camera views changing. In this paper, we propose to generate multi-view pose sequences for each single-view pose sample by learning full-rank transformation matrices via lower-upper generative adversarial network (LUGAN). By the prior of camera imaging, we derive that the spatial coordinates between cross-view poses satisfy a linear transformation of a full-rank matrix, thereby, this paper employs the adversarial training to learn transformation matrices from the source pose and target views to obtain the target pose sequences. To this end, we implement a generator composed of graph convolutional (GCN) layers, fully connected (FC) layers and two-branch convolutional (CNN) layers: GCN layers and FC layers encode the source pose sequence and target view, then CNN branches learn a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix, respectively, finally they are multiplied to formulate the full-rank transformation matrix. For the purpose of adversarial training, we further devise a condition discriminator that distinguishes whether the pose sequence is true or generated. To enable the high-level correlation learning, we propose a plug-and-play module, named multi-scale hypergraph convolution (HGC), to replace the spatial graph convolutional layer in baseline, which could simultaneously model the joint-level, part-level and body-level correlations. Extensive experiments on two large gait recognition datasets, i.e., CASIA-B and OUMVLP-Pose, demonstrate that our method outperforms the baseline model and existing pose-based methods by a large margin.

CV-21-标题 Multi-Modal Cross-Domain Alignment Network for Video Moment Retrieval

Abstract: As an increasingly popular task in multimedia information retrieval, video moment retrieval (VMR) aims to localize the target moment from an untrimmed video according to a given language query. Most previous methods depend heavily on numerous manual annotations (i.e., moment boundaries), which are extremely expensive to acquire in practice. In addition, due to the domain gap between different datasets, directly applying these pre-trained models to an unseen domain leads to a significant performance drop. In this paper, we focus on a novel task: cross-domain VMR, where fully-annotated datasets are available in one domain (source domain''), but the domain of interest (target domain’') only contains unannotated datasets. As far as we know, we present the first study on cross-domain VMR. To address this new task, we propose a novel Multi-Modal Cross-Domain Alignment (MMCDA) network to transfer the annotation knowledge from the source domain to the target domain. However, due to the domain discrepancy between the source and target domains and the semantic gap between videos and queries, directly applying trained models to the target domain generally leads to a performance drop. To solve this problem, we develop three novel modules: (i) a domain alignment module is designed to align the feature distributions between different domains of each modality; (ii) a cross-modal alignment module aims to map both video and query features into a joint embedding space and to align the feature distributions between different modalities in the target domain; (iii) a specific alignment module tries to obtain the fine-grained similarity between a specific frame and the given query for optimal localization. By jointly training these three modules, our MMCDA can learn domain-invariant and semantic-aligned cross-modal representations.

CV-22-标题 Query-based Hard-Image Retrieval for Object Detection at Test Time

Abstract: There is a longstanding interest in capturing the error behaviour of object detectors by finding images where their performance is likely to be unsatisfactory. In real-world applications such as autonomous driving, it is also crucial to characterise potential failures beyond simple requirements of detection performance. For example, a missed detection of a pedestrian close to an ego vehicle will generally require closer inspection than a missed detection of a car in the distance. The problem of predicting such potential failures at test time has largely been overlooked in the literature and conventional approaches based on detection uncertainty fall short in that they are agnostic to such fine-grained characterisation of errors. In this work, we propose to reformulate the problem of finding “hard” images as a query-based hard image retrieval task, where queries are specific definitions of “hardness”, and offer a simple and intuitive method that can solve this task for a large family of queries. Our method is entirely post-hoc, does not require ground-truth annotations, is independent of the choice of a detector, and relies on an efficient Monte Carlo estimation that uses a simple stochastic model in place of the ground-truth. We show experimentally that it can be applied successfully to a wide variety of queries for which it can reliably identify hard images for a given detector without any labelled data. We provide results on ranking and classification tasks using the widely used RetinaNet, Faster-RCNN, Mask-RCNN, and Cascade Mask-RCNN object detectors.

CV-23-标题 MAGIC Mask-Guided Image Synthesis by Inverting a Quasi-Robust Classifier

Abstract: We offer a method for one-shot image synthesis that allows controlling manipulations of a single image by inverting a quasi-robust classifier equipped with strong regularizers. Our proposed method, entitled Magic, samples structured gradients from a pre-trained quasi-robust classifier to better preserve the input semantics while preserving its classification accuracy, thereby guaranteeing credibility in the synthesis. Unlike current methods that use complex primitives to supervise the process or use attention maps as a weak supervisory signal, Magic aggregates gradients over the input, driven by a guide binary mask that enforces a strong, spatial prior. Magic implements a series of manipulations with a single framework achieving shape and location control, intense non-rigid shape deformations, and copy/move operations in the presence of repeating objects and gives users firm control over the synthesis by requiring simply specifying binary guide masks. Our study and findings are supported by various qualitative comparisons with the state-of-the-art on the same images sampled from ImageNet and quantitative analysis using machine perception along with a user survey of 100+ participants that endorse our synthesis quality.

CV-24-标题 Statistical shape representations for temporal registration of plant components in 3D

Abstract: Plants are dynamic organisms. Understanding temporal variations in vegetation is an essential problem for all robots in the wild. However, associating repeated 3D scans of plants across time is challenging. A key step in this process is re-identifying and tracking the same individual plant components over time. Previously, this has been achieved by comparing their global spatial or topological location. In this work, we demonstrate how using shape features improves temporal organ matching. We present a landmark-free shape compression algorithm, which allows for the extraction of 3D shape features of leaves, characterises leaf shape and curvature efficiently in few parameters, and makes the association of individual leaves in feature space possible. The approach combines 3D contour extraction and further compression using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to produce a shape space encoding, which is entirely learned from data and retains information about edge contours and 3D curvature. Our evaluation on temporal scan sequences of tomato plants shows, that incorporating shape features improves temporal leaf-matching. A combination of shape, location, and rotation information proves most informative for recognition of leaves over time and yields a true positive rate of 75%, a 15% improvement on sate-of-the-art methods. This is essential for robotic crop monitoring, which enables whole-of-lifecycle phenotyping.

CV-25-标题 WS-3D-Lane Weakly Supervised 3D Lane Detection With 2D Lane Labels

Abstract: Compared to 2D lanes, real 3D lane data is difficult to collect accurately. In this paper, we propose a novel method for training 3D lanes with only 2D lane labels, called weakly supervised 3D lane detection WS-3D-Lane. By assumptions of constant lane width and equal height on adjacent lanes, we indirectly supervise 3D lane heights in the training. To overcome the problem of the dynamic change of the camera pitch during data collection, a camera pitch self-calibration method is proposed. In anchor representation, we propose a double-layer anchor with a improved non-maximum suppression (NMS) method, which enables the anchor-based method to predict two lane lines that are close. Experiments are conducted on the base of 3D-LaneNet under two supervision methods. Under weakly supervised setting, our WS-3D-Lane outperforms previous 3D-LaneNet: F-score rises to 92.3% on Apollo 3D synthetic dataset, and F1 rises to 74.5% on ONCE-3DLanes. Meanwhile, WS-3D-Lane in purely supervised setting makes more increments and outperforms state-of-the-art. To the best of our knowledge, WS-3D-Lane is the first try of 3D lane detection under weakly supervised setting.

CV-26-标题 Vector Quantized Semantic Communication System

Abstract: Although analog semantic communication systems have received considerable attention in the literature, there is less work on digital semantic communication systems. In this paper, we develop a deep learning (DL)-enabled vector quantized (VQ) semantic communication system for image transmission, named VQ-DeepSC. Specifically, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based transceiver to extract multi-scale semantic features of images and introduce multi-scale semantic embedding spaces to perform semantic feature quantization, rendering the data compatible with digital communication systems. Furthermore, we employ adversarial training to improve the quality of received images by introducing a PatchGAN discriminator. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed VQ-DeepSC outperforms traditional image transmission methods in terms of SSIM.

CV-27-标题 Marine Video Kit A New Marine Video Dataset for Content-based Analysis and Retrieval

Abstract: Effective analysis of unusual domain specific video collections represents an important practical problem, where state-of-the-art general purpose models still face limitations. Hence, it is desirable to design benchmark datasets that challenge novel powerful models for specific domains with additional constraints. It is important to remember that domain specific data may be noisier (e.g., endoscopic or underwater videos) and often require more experienced users for effective search. In this paper, we focus on single-shot videos taken from moving cameras in underwater environments which constitute a nontrivial challenge for research purposes. The first shard of a new Marine Video Kit dataset is presented to serve for video retrieval and other computer vision challenges. In addition to basic meta-data statistics, we present several insights and reference graphs based on low-level features as well as semantic annotations of selected keyframes. The analysis contains also experiments showing limitations of respected general purpose models for retrieval.

CV-28-标题 Comparison of synthetic dataset generation methods for medical intervention rooms using medical clothing detection as an example

Abstract: The availability of real data from areas with high privacy requirements, such as the medical intervention space, is low and the acquisition legally complex. Therefore, this work presents a way to create a synthetic dataset for the medical context, using medical clothing as an example. The goal is to close the reality gap between the synthetic and real data. For this purpose, methods of 3D-scanned clothing and designed clothing are compared in a Domain-Randomization and Structured-Domain-Randomization scenario using an Unreal-Engine plugin or Unity. Additionally a Mixed-Reality dataset in front of a greenscreen and a target domain dataset were used. Our experiments show, that Structured-Domain-Randomization of designed clothing together with Mixed-Reality data provide a baseline achieving 72.0% mAP on a test dataset of the clinical target domain. When additionally using 15% of available target domain train data, the gap towards 100% (660 images) target domain train data could be nearly closed 80.05% mAP (81.95% mAP). Finally we show that when additionally using 100% target domain train data the accuracy could be increased to 83.35% mAP.

CV-29-标题 Grouped Adaptive Loss Weighting for Person Search

CV-30-标题 GIDP Learning a Good Initialization and Inducing Descriptor Post-enhancing for Large-scale Place Recognition

Abstract: Large-scale place recognition is a fundamental but challenging task, which plays an increasingly important role in autonomous driving and robotics. Existing methods have achieved acceptable good performance, however, most of them are concentrating on designing elaborate global descriptor learning network structures. The importance of feature generalization and descriptor post-enhancing has long been neglected. In this work, we propose a novel method named GIDP to learn a Good Initialization and Inducing Descriptor Poseenhancing for Large-scale Place Recognition. In particular, an unsupervised momentum contrast point cloud pretraining module and a reranking-based descriptor post-enhancing module are proposed respectively in GIDP. The former aims at learning a good initialization for the point cloud encoding network before training the place recognition model, while the later aims at post-enhancing the predicted global descriptor through reranking at inference time. Extensive experiments on both indoor and outdoor datasets demonstrate that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance using simple and general point cloud encoding backbones.

CV-31-标题 Weakly Supervised Two-Stage Training Scheme for Deep Video Fight Detection Model

Abstract: Fight detection in videos is an emerging deep learning application with today’s prevalence of surveillance systems and streaming media. Previous work has largely relied on action recognition techniques to tackle this problem. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method that solves the task from a new perspective: we design the fight detection model as a composition of an action-aware feature extractor and an anomaly score generator. Also, considering that collecting frame-level labels for videos is too laborious, we design a weakly supervised two-stage training scheme, where we utilize multiple-instance-learning loss calculated on video-level labels to train the score generator, and adopt the self-training technique to further improve its performance. Extensive experiments on a publicly available large-scale dataset, UBI-Fights, demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, and the performance on the dataset exceeds several previous state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, we collect a new dataset, VFD-2000, that specializes in video fight detection, with a larger scale and more scenarios than existing datasets. The implementation of our method and the proposed dataset will be publicly available at this https URL.

CV-32-标题 Unsupervised Hashing with Semantic Concept Mining

Abstract: Recently, to improve the unsupervised image retrieval performance, plenty of unsupervised hashing methods have been proposed by designing a semantic similarity matrix, which is based on the similarities between image features extracted by a pre-trained CNN model. However, most of these methods tend to ignore high-level abstract semantic concepts contained in images. Intuitively, concepts play an important role in calculating the similarity among images. In real-world scenarios, each image is associated with some concepts, and the similarity between two images will be larger if they share more identical concepts. Inspired by the above intuition, in this work, we propose a novel Unsupervised Hashing with Semantic Concept Mining, called UHSCM, which leverages a VLP model to construct a high-quality similarity matrix. Specifically, a set of randomly chosen concepts is first collected. Then, by employing a vision-language pretraining (VLP) model with the prompt engineering which has shown strong power in visual representation learning, the set of concepts is denoised according to the training images. Next, the proposed method UHSCM applies the VLP model with prompting again to mine the concept distribution of each image and construct a high-quality semantic similarity matrix based on the mined concept distributions. Finally, with the semantic similarity matrix as guiding information, a novel hashing loss with a modified contrastive loss based regularization item is proposed to optimize the hashing network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in the image retrieval task.

CV-33-标题 TeST Test-time Self-Training under Distribution Shift

Abstract: Despite their recent success, deep neural networks continue to perform poorly when they encounter distribution shifts at test time. Many recently proposed approaches try to counter this by aligning the model to the new distribution prior to inference. With no labels available this requires unsupervised objectives to adapt the model on the observed test data. In this paper, we propose Test-Time Self-Training (TeST): a technique that takes as input a model trained on some source data and a novel data distribution at test time, and learns invariant and robust representations using a student-teacher framework. We find that models adapted using TeST significantly improve over baseline test-time adaptation algorithms. TeST achieves competitive performance to modern domain adaptation algorithms, while having access to 5-10x less data at time of adaption. We thoroughly evaluate a variety of baselines on two tasks: object detection and image segmentation and find that models adapted with TeST. We find that TeST sets the new state-of-the art for test-time domain adaptation algorithms.

CV-34-标题 Motion Guided Deep Dynamic 3D Garments

Abstract: Realistic dynamic garments on animated characters have many AR/VR applications. While authoring such dynamic garment geometry is still a challenging task, data-driven simulation provides an attractive alternative, especially if it can be controlled simply using the motion of the underlying character. In this work, we focus on motion guided dynamic 3D garments, especially for loose garments. In a data-driven setup, we first learn a generative space of plausible garment geometries. Then, we learn a mapping to this space to capture the motion dependent dynamic deformations, conditioned on the previous state of the garment as well as its relative position with respect to the underlying body. Technically, we model garment dynamics, driven using the input character motion, by predicting per-frame local displacements in a canonical state of the garment that is enriched with frame-dependent skinning weights to bring the garment to the global space. We resolve any remaining per-frame collisions by predicting residual local displacements. The resultant garment geometry is used as history to enable iterative rollout prediction. We demonstrate plausible generalization to unseen body shapes and motion inputs, and show improvements over multiple state-of-the-art alternatives.

CV-35-标题 Rethinking Performance Gains in Image Dehazing Networks

Abstract: Image dehazing is an active topic in low-level vision, and many image dehazing networks have been proposed with the rapid development of deep learning. Although these networks’ pipelines work fine, the key mechanism to improving image dehazing performance remains unclear. For this reason, we do not target to propose a dehazing network with fancy modules; rather, we make minimal modifications to popular U-Net to obtain a compact dehazing network. Specifically, we swap out the convolutional blocks in U-Net for residual blocks with the gating mechanism, fuse the feature maps of main paths and skip connections using the selective kernel, and call the resulting U-Net variant gUNet. As a result, with a significantly reduced overhead, gUNet is superior to state-of-the-art methods on multiple image dehazing datasets. Finally, we verify these key designs to the performance gain of image dehazing networks through extensive ablation studies.

CV-36-标题 Understanding Open-Set Recognition by Jacobian Norm of Representation

Abstract: In contrast to conventional closed-set recognition, open-set recognition (OSR) assumes the presence of an unknown class, which is not seen to a model during training. One predominant approach in OSR is metric learning, where a model is trained to separate the inter-class representations of known class data. Numerous works in OSR reported that, even though the models are trained only with the known class data, the models become aware of the unknown, and learn to separate the unknown class representations from the known class representations. This paper analyzes this emergent phenomenon by observing the Jacobian norm of representation. We theoretically show that minimizing the intra-class distances within the known set reduces the Jacobian norm of known class representations while maximizing the inter-class distances within the known set increases the Jacobian norm of the unknown class. The closed-set metric learning thus separates the unknown from the known by forcing their Jacobian norm values to differ. We empirically validate our theoretical framework with ample pieces of evidence using standard OSR datasets. Moreover, under our theoretical framework, we explain how the standard deep learning techniques can be helpful for OSR and use the framework as a guiding principle to develop an effective OSR model.

CV-37-标题 Towards Frame Rate Agnostic Multi-Object Tracking

Abstract: Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) is one of the most fundamental computer vision tasks which contributes to a variety of video analysis applications. Despite the recent promising progress, current MOT research is still limited to a fixed sampling frame rate of the input stream. In fact, we empirically find that the accuracy of all recent state-of-the-art trackers drops dramatically when the input frame rate changes. For a more intelligent tracking solution, we shift the attention of our research work to the problem of Frame Rate Agnostic MOT (FraMOT). In this paper, we propose a Frame Rate Agnostic MOT framework with Periodic training Scheme (FAPS) to tackle the FraMOT problem for the first time. Specifically, we propose a Frame Rate Agnostic Association Module (FAAM) that infers and encodes the frame rate information to aid identity matching across multi-frame-rate inputs, improving the capability of the learned model in handling complex motion-appearance relations in FraMOT. Besides, the association gap between training and inference is enlarged in FraMOT because those post-processing steps not included in training make a larger difference in lower frame rate scenarios. To address it, we propose Periodic Training Scheme (PTS) to reflect all post-processing steps in training via tracking pattern matching and fusion. Along with the proposed approaches, we make the first attempt to establish an evaluation method for this new task of FraMOT in two different modes, i.e., known frame rate and unknown frame rate, aiming to handle a more complex situation. The quantitative experiments on the challenging MOT datasets (FraMOT version) have clearly demonstrated that the proposed approaches can handle different frame rates better and thus improve the robustness against complicated scenarios.

CV-38-标题 LGDN Language-Guided Denoising Network for Video-Language Modeling

Abstract: Video-language modeling has attracted much attention with the rapid growth of web videos. Most existing methods assume that the video frames and text description are semantically correlated, and focus on video-language modeling at video level. However, this hypothesis often fails for two reasons: (1) With the rich semantics of video contents, it is difficult to cover all frames with a single video-level description; (2) A raw video typically has noisy/meaningless information (e.g., scenery shot, transition or teaser). Although a number of recent works deploy attention mechanism to alleviate this problem, the irrelevant/noisy information still makes it very difficult to address. To overcome such challenge, we thus propose an efficient and effective model, termed Language-Guided Denoising Network (LGDN), for video-language modeling. Different from most existing methods that utilize all extracted video frames, LGDN dynamically filters out the misaligned or redundant frames under the language supervision and obtains only 2–4 salient frames per video for cross-modal token-level alignment. Extensive experiments on five public datasets show that our LGDN outperforms the state-of-the-arts by large margins. We also provide detailed ablation study to reveal the critical importance of solving the noise issue, in hope of inspiring future video-language work.

CV-39-标题 Tensor-Based Multi-Modality Feature Selection and Regression for Alzheimers Disease Diagnosis

Abstract: The assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) associated with brain changes remains a challenging task. Recent studies have demonstrated that combination of multi-modality imaging techniques can better reflect pathological characteristics and contribute to more accurate diagnosis of AD and MCI. In this paper, we propose a novel tensor-based multi-modality feature selection and regression method for diagnosis and biomarker identification of AD and MCI from normal controls. Specifically, we leverage the tensor structure to exploit high-level correlation information inherent in the multi-modality data, and investigate tensor-level sparsity in the multilinear regression model. We present the practical advantages of our method for the analysis of ADNI data using three imaging modalities (VBM- MRI, FDG-PET and AV45-PET) with clinical parameters of disease severity and cognitive scores. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method against the state-of-the-art for the disease diagnosis and the identification of disease-specific regions and modality-related differences. The code for this work is publicly available at this https URL.

CV-40-标题 CUTS A Fully Unsupervised Framework for Medical Image Segmentation

Abstract: In this work we introduce CUTS (Contrastive and Unsupervised Training for Segmentation) the first fully unsupervised deep learning framework for medical image segmentation, facilitating the use of the vast majority of imaging data that is not labeled or annotated. Segmenting medical images into regions of interest is a critical task for facilitating both patient diagnoses and quantitative research. A major limiting factor in this segmentation is the lack of labeled data, as getting expert annotations for each new set of imaging data or task can be expensive, labor intensive, and inconsistent across annotators: thus, we utilize self-supervision based on pixel-centered patches from the images themselves. Our unsupervised approach is based on a training objective with both contrastive learning and autoencoding aspects. Previous contrastive learning approaches for medical image segmentation have focused on image-level contrastive training, rather than our intra-image patch-level approach or have used this as a pre-training task where the network needed further supervised training afterwards. By contrast, we build the first entirely unsupervised framework that operates at the pixel-centered-patch level. Specifically, we add novel augmentations, a patch reconstruction loss, and introduce a new pixel clustering and identification framework. Our model achieves improved results on several key medical imaging tasks, as verified by held-out expert annotations on the task of segmenting geographic atrophy (GA) regions of images of the retina.

CV-41-标题 NasHD Efficient ViT Architecture Performance Ranking using Hyperdimensional Computing

Abstract: Neural Architecture Search (NAS) is an automated architecture engineering method for deep learning design automation, which serves as an alternative to the manual and error-prone process of model development, selection, evaluation and performance estimation. However, one major obstacle of NAS is the extremely demanding computation resource requirements and time-consuming iterations particularly when the dataset scales. In this paper, targeting at the emerging vision transformer (ViT), we present NasHD, a hyperdimensional computing based supervised learning model to rank the performance given the architectures and configurations. Different from other learning based methods, NasHD is faster thanks to the high parallel processing of HDC architecture. We also evaluated two HDC encoding schemes: Gram-based and Record-based of NasHD on their performance and efficiency. On the VIMER-UFO benchmark dataset of 8 applications from a diverse range of domains, NasHD Record can rank the performance of nearly 100K vision transformer models with about 1 minute while still achieving comparable results with sophisticated models.

CV-42-标题 Learning Interpretable Dynamics from Images of a Freely Rotating 3D Rigid Body

Abstract: In many real-world settings, image observations of freely rotating 3D rigid bodies, such as satellites, may be available when low-dimensional measurements are not. However, the high-dimensionality of image data precludes the use of classical estimation techniques to learn the dynamics and a lack of interpretability reduces the usefulness of standard deep learning methods. In this work, we present a physics-informed neural network model to estimate and predict 3D rotational dynamics from image sequences. We achieve this using a multi-stage prediction pipeline that maps individual images to a latent representation homeomorphic to \mathbfSO(3) , computes angular velocities from latent pairs, and predicts future latent states using the Hamiltonian equations of motion with a learned representation of the Hamiltonian. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a new rotating rigid-body dataset with sequences of rotating cubes and rectangular prisms with uniform and non-uniform density.

CV-43-标题 Oracle Analysis of Representations for Deep Open Set Detection

Abstract: The problem of detecting a novel class at run time is known as Open Set Detection & is important for various real-world applications like medical application, autonomous driving, etc. Open Set Detection within context of deep learning involves solving two problems: (i) Must map the input images into a latent representation that contains enough information to detect the outliers, and (ii) Must learn an anomaly scoring function that can extract this information from the latent representation to identify the anomalies. Research in deep anomaly detection methods has progressed slowly. One reason may be that most papers simultaneously introduce new representation learning techniques and new anomaly scoring approaches. The goal of this work is to improve this methodology by providing ways of separately measuring the effectiveness of the representation learning and anomaly scoring. This work makes two methodological contributions. The first is to introduce the notion of Oracle anomaly detection for quantifying the information available in a learned latent representation. The second is to introduce Oracle representation learning, which produces a representation that is guaranteed to be sufficient for accurate anomaly detection. These two techniques help researchers to separate the quality of the learned representation from the performance of the anomaly scoring mechanism so that they can debug and improve their systems. The methods also provide an upper limit on how much open category detection can be improved through better anomaly scoring mechanisms. The combination of the two oracles gives an upper limit on the performance that any open category detection method could achieve. This work introduces these two oracle techniques and demonstrates their utility by applying them to several leading open category detection methods.

CV-44-标题 Swin2SR SwinV2 Transformer for Compressed Image Super-Resolution and Restoration

Abstract: Compression plays an important role on the efficient transmission and storage of images and videos through band-limited systems such as streaming services, virtual reality or videogames. However, compression unavoidably leads to artifacts and the loss of the original information, which may severely degrade the visual quality. For these reasons, quality enhancement of compressed images has become a popular research topic. While most state-of-the-art image restoration methods are based on convolutional neural networks, other transformers-based methods such as SwinIR, show impressive performance on these tasks. In this paper, we explore the novel Swin Transformer V2, to improve SwinIR for image super-resolution, and in particular, the compressed input scenario. Using this method we can tackle the major issues in training transformer vision models, such as training instability, resolution gaps between pre-training and fine-tuning, and hunger on data. We conduct experiments on three representative tasks: JPEG compression artifacts removal, image super-resolution (classical and lightweight), and compressed image super-resolution. Experimental results demonstrate that our method, Swin2SR, can improve the training convergence and performance of SwinIR, and is a top-5 solution at the “AIM 2022 Challenge on Super-Resolution of Compressed Image and Video”.

CV-45-标题 Fast Disparity Estimation from a Single Compressed Light Field Measurement

Abstract: The abundant spatial and angular information from light fields has allowed the development of multiple disparity estimation approaches. However, the acquisition of light fields requires high storage and processing cost, limiting the use of this technology in practical applications. To overcome these drawbacks, the compressive sensing (CS) theory has allowed the development of optical architectures to acquire a single coded light field measurement. This measurement is decoded using an optimization algorithm or deep neural network that requires high computational costs. The traditional approach for disparity estimation from compressed light fields requires first recovering the entire light field and then a post-processing step, thus requiring long times. In contrast, this work proposes a fast disparity estimation from a single compressed measurement by omitting the recovery step required in traditional approaches. Specifically, we propose to jointly optimize an optical architecture for acquiring a single coded light field snapshot and a convolutional neural network (CNN) for estimating the disparity maps. Experimentally, the proposed method estimates disparity maps comparable with those obtained from light fields reconstructed using deep learning approaches. Furthermore, the proposed method is 20 times faster in training and inference than the best method that estimates the disparity from reconstructed light fields.

CV-46-标题 A domain adaptive deep learning solution for scanpath prediction of paintings

Abstract: Cultural heritage understanding and preservation is an important issue for society as it represents a fundamental aspect of its identity. Paintings represent a significant part of cultural heritage, and are the subject of study continuously. However, the way viewers perceive paintings is strictly related to the so-called HVS (Human Vision System) behaviour. This paper focuses on the eye-movement analysis of viewers during the visual experience of a certain number of paintings. In further details, we introduce a new approach to predicting human visual attention, which impacts several cognitive functions for humans, including the fundamental understanding of a scene, and then extend it to painting images. The proposed new architecture ingests images and returns scanpaths, a sequence of points featuring a high likelihood of catching viewers’ attention. We use an FCNN (Fully Convolutional Neural Network), in which we exploit a differentiable channel-wise selection and Soft-Argmax modules. We also incorporate learnable Gaussian distributions onto the network bottleneck to simulate visual attention process bias in natural scene images. Furthermore, to reduce the effect of shifts between different domains (i.e. natural images, painting), we urge the model to learn unsupervised general features from other domains using a gradient reversal classifier. The results obtained by our model outperform existing state-of-the-art ones in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

CV-47-标题 UNav An Infrastructure-Independent Vision-Based Navigation System for People with Blindness and Low vision

Abstract: Vision-based localization approaches now underpin newly emerging navigation pipelines for myriad use cases from robotics to assistive technologies. Compared to sensor-based solutions, vision-based localization does not require pre-installed sensor infrastructure, which is costly, time-consuming, and/or often infeasible at scale. Herein, we propose a novel vision-based localization pipeline for a specific use case: navigation support for end-users with blindness and low vision. Given a query image taken by an end-user on a mobile application, the pipeline leverages a visual place recognition (VPR) algorithm to find similar images in a reference image database of the target space. The geolocations of these similar images are utilized in downstream tasks that employ a weighted-average method to estimate the end-user’s location and a perspective-n-point (PnP) algorithm to estimate the end-user’s direction. Additionally, this system implements Dijkstra’s algorithm to calculate a shortest path based on a navigable map that includes trip origin and destination. The topometric map used for localization and navigation is built using a customized graphical user interface that projects a 3D reconstructed sparse map, built from a sequence of images, to the corresponding a priori 2D floor plan. Sequential images used for map construction can be collected in a pre-mapping step or scavenged through public databases/citizen science. The end-to-end system can be installed on any internet-accessible device with a camera that hosts a custom mobile application. For evaluation purposes, mapping and localization were tested in a complex hospital environment. The evaluation results demonstrate that our system can achieve localization with an average error of less than 1 meter without knowledge of the camera’s intrinsic parameters, such as focal length.

CV-48-标题 Privacy-Preserving Person Detection Using Low-Resolution Infrared Cameras

Abstract: In intelligent building management, knowing the number of people and their location in a room are important for better control of its illumination, ventilation, and heating with reduced costs and improved comfort. This is typically achieved by detecting people using compact embedded devices that are installed on the room’s ceiling, and that integrate low-resolution infrared camera, which conceals each person’s identity. However, for accurate detection, state-of-the-art deep learning models still require supervised training using a large annotated dataset of images. In this paper, we investigate cost-effective methods that are suitable for person detection based on low-resolution infrared images. Results indicate that for such images, we can reduce the amount of supervision and computation, while still achieving a high level of detection accuracy. Going from single-shot detectors that require bounding box annotations of each person in an image, to auto-encoders that only rely on unlabelled images that do not contain people, allows for considerable savings in terms of annotation costs, and for models with lower computational costs. We validate these experimental findings on two challenging top-view datasets with low-resolution infrared images.

CV-49-标题 FuTH-Net Fusing Temporal Relations and Holistic Features for Aerial Video Classification

Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now widely applied to data acquisition due to its low cost and fast mobility. With the increasing volume of aerial videos, the demand for automatically parsing these videos is surging. To achieve this, current researches mainly focus on extracting a holistic feature with convolutions along both spatial and temporal dimensions. However, these methods are limited by small temporal receptive fields and cannot adequately capture long-term temporal dependencies which are important for describing complicated dynamics. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural network, termed FuTH-Net, to model not only holistic features, but also temporal relations for aerial video classification. Furthermore, the holistic features are refined by the multi-scale temporal relations in a novel fusion module for yielding more discriminative video representations. More specially, FuTH-Net employs a two-pathway architecture: (1) a holistic representation pathway to learn a general feature of both frame appearances and shortterm temporal variations and (2) a temporal relation pathway to capture multi-scale temporal relations across arbitrary frames, providing long-term temporal dependencies. Afterwards, a novel fusion module is proposed to spatiotemporal integrate the two features learned from the two pathways. Our model is evaluated on two aerial video classification datasets, ERA and Drone-Action, and achieves the state-of-the-art results. This demonstrates its effectiveness and good generalization capacity across different recognition tasks (event classification and human action recognition). To facilitate further research, we release the code at this https URL.

CV-50-标题 Colonoscopy Landmark Detection using Vision Transformers

Abstract: Colonoscopy is a routine outpatient procedure used to examine the colon and rectum for any abnormalities including polyps, diverticula and narrowing of colon structures. A significant amount of the clinician’s time is spent in post-processing snapshots taken during the colonoscopy procedure, for maintaining medical records or further investigation. Automating this step can save time and improve the efficiency of the process. In our work, we have collected a dataset of 120 colonoscopy videos and 2416 snapshots taken during the procedure, that have been annotated by experts. Further, we have developed a novel, vision-transformer based landmark detection algorithm that identifies key anatomical landmarks (the appendiceal orifice, ileocecal valve/cecum landmark and rectum retroflexion) from snapshots taken during colonoscopy. Our algorithm uses an adaptive gamma correction during preprocessing to maintain a consistent brightness for all images. We then use a vision transformer as the feature extraction backbone and a fully connected network based classifier head to categorize a given frame into four classes: the three landmarks or a non-landmark frame. We compare the vision transformer (ViT-B/16) backbone with ResNet-101 and ConvNext-B backbones that have been trained similarly. We report an accuracy of 82% with the vision transformer backbone on a test dataset of snapshots.

CV-51-标题 Deep Domain Adaptation for Detecting Bomb Craters in Aerial Images

Abstract: The aftermath of air raids can still be seen for decades after the devastating events. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) is an immense danger to human life and the environment. Through the assessment of wartime images, experts can infer the occurrence of a dud. The current manual analysis process is expensive and time-consuming, thus automated detection of bomb craters by using deep learning is a promising way to improve the UXO disposal process. However, these methods require a large amount of manually labeled training data. This work leverages domain adaptation with moon surface images to address the problem of automated bomb crater detection with deep learning under the constraint of limited training data. This paper contributes to both academia and practice (1) by providing a solution approach for automated bomb crater detection with limited training data and (2) by demonstrating the usability and associated challenges of using synthetic images for domain adaptation.

CV-52-标题 T2FPV Constructing High-Fidelity First-Person View Datasets From Real-World Pedestrian Trajectories

Abstract: Predicting pedestrian motion is essential for developing socially-aware robots that interact in a crowded environment. While the natural visual perspective for a social interaction setting is an egocentric view, the majority of existing work in trajectory prediction has been investigated purely in the top-down trajectory space. To support first-person view trajectory prediction research, we present T2FPV, a method for constructing high-fidelity first-person view datasets given a real-world, top-down trajectory dataset; we showcase our approach on the ETH/UCY pedestrian dataset to generate the egocentric visual data of all interacting pedestrians. We report that the bird’s-eye view assumption used in the original ETH/UCY dataset, i.e., an agent can observe everyone in the scene with perfect information, does not hold in the first-person views; only a fraction of agents are fully visible during each 20-timestep scene used commonly in existing work. We evaluate existing trajectory prediction approaches under varying levels of realistic perception – displacement errors suffer a 356% increase compared to the top-down, perfect information setting. To promote research in first-person view trajectory prediction, we release our T2FPV-ETH dataset and software tools.

CV-53-标题 FusionVAE A Deep Hierarchical Variational Autoencoder for RGB Image Fusion

Abstract: Sensor fusion can significantly improve the performance of many computer vision tasks. However, traditional fusion approaches are either not data-driven and cannot exploit prior knowledge nor find regularities in a given dataset or they are restricted to a single application. We overcome this shortcoming by presenting a novel deep hierarchical variational autoencoder called FusionVAE that can serve as a basis for many fusion tasks. Our approach is able to generate diverse image samples that are conditioned on multiple noisy, occluded, or only partially visible input images. We derive and optimize a variational lower bound for the conditional log-likelihood of FusionVAE. In order to assess the fusion capabilities of our model thoroughly, we created three novel datasets for image fusion based on popular computer vision datasets. In our experiments, we show that FusionVAE learns a representation of aggregated information that is relevant to fusion tasks. The results demonstrate that our approach outperforms traditional methods significantly. Furthermore, we present the advantages and disadvantages of different design choices.

CV-54-标题 Capsule Network based Contrastive Learning of Unsupervised Visual Representations

Abstract: Capsule Networks have shown tremendous advancement in the past decade, outperforming the traditional CNNs in various task due to it’s equivariant properties. With the use of vector I/O which provides information of both magnitude and direction of an object or it’s part, there lies an enormous possibility of using Capsule Networks in unsupervised learning environment for visual representation tasks such as multi class image classification. In this paper, we propose Contrastive Capsule (CoCa) Model which is a Siamese style Capsule Network using Contrastive loss with our novel architecture, training and testing algorithm. We evaluate the model on unsupervised image classification CIFAR-10 dataset and achieve a top-1 test accuracy of 70.50% and top-5 test accuracy of 98.10%. Due to our efficient architecture our model has 31 times less parameters and 71 times less FLOPs than the current SOTA in both supervised and unsupervised learning.

CV-55-标题 Optimization of FPGA-based CNN Accelerators Using Metaheuristics

Abstract: In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated their ability to solve problems in many fields and with accuracy that was not possible before. However, this comes with extensive computational requirements, which made general CPUs unable to deliver the desired real-time performance. At the same time, FPGAs have seen a surge in interest for accelerating CNN inference. This is due to their ability to create custom designs with different levels of parallelism. Furthermore, FPGAs provide better performance per watt compared to GPUs. The current trend in FPGA-based CNN accelerators is to implement multiple convolutional layer processors (CLPs), each of which is tailored for a subset of layers. However, the growing complexity of CNN architectures makes optimizing the resources available on the target FPGA device to deliver optimal performance more challenging. In this paper, we present a CNN accelerator and an accompanying automated design methodology that employs metaheuristics for partitioning available FPGA resources to design a Multi-CLP accelerator. Specifically, the proposed design tool adopts simulated annealing (SA) and tabu search (TS) algorithms to find the number of CLPs required and their respective configurations to achieve optimal performance on a given target FPGA device. Here, the focus is on the key specifications and hardware resources, including digital signal processors, block RAMs, and off-chip memory bandwidth. Experimental results and comparisons using four well-known benchmark CNNs are presented demonstrating that the proposed acceleration framework is both encouraging and promising. The SA-/TS-based Multi-CLP achieves 1.31x - 2.37x higher throughput than the state-of-the-art Single-/Multi-CLP approaches in accelerating AlexNet, SqueezeNet 1.1, VGGNet, and GoogLeNet architectures on the Xilinx VC707 and VC709 FPGA boards.

CV-56-标题 Recurrence-free Survival Prediction under the Guidance of Automatic Gross Tumor Volume Segmentation for Head and Neck Cancers

Abstract: For Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) patient management, automatic gross tumor volume (GTV) segmentation and accurate pre-treatment cancer recurrence prediction are of great importance to assist physicians in designing personalized management plans, which have the potential to improve the treatment outcome and quality of life for HNC patients. In this paper, we developed an automated primary tumor (GTVp) and lymph nodes (GTVn) segmentation method based on combined pre-treatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans of HNC patients. We extracted radiomics features from the segmented tumor volume and constructed a multi-modality tumor recurrence-free survival (RFS) prediction model, which fused the prediction results from separate CT radiomics, PET radiomics, and clinical models. We performed 5-fold cross-validation to train and evaluate our methods on the MICCAI 2022 HEad and neCK TumOR segmentation and outcome prediction challenge (HECKTOR) dataset. The ensemble prediction results on the testing cohort achieved Dice scores of 0.77 and 0.73 for GTVp and GTVn segmentation, respectively, and a C-index value of 0.67 for RFS prediction. The code is publicly available (this https URL). Our team’s name is AIRT.

CV-57-标题 3DPCT 3D Point Cloud Transformer with Dual Self-attention

Abstract: Transformers have resulted in remarkable achievements in the field of image processing. Inspired by this great success, the application of Transformers to 3D point cloud processing has drawn more and more attention. This paper presents a novel point cloud representational learning network, 3D Point Cloud Transformer with Dual Self-attention (3DPCT) and an encoder-decoder structure. Specifically, 3DPCT has a hierarchical encoder, which contains two local-global dual-attention modules for the classification task (three modules for the segmentation task), with each module consisting of a Local Feature Aggregation (LFA) block and a Global Feature Learning (GFL) block. The GFL block is dual self-attention, with both point-wise and channel-wise self-attention to improve feature extraction. Moreover, in LFA, to better leverage the local information extracted, a novel point-wise self-attention model, named as Point-Patch Self-Attention (PPSA), is designed. The performance is evaluated on both classification and segmentation datasets, containing both synthetic and real-world data. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieved state-of-the-art results on both classification and segmentation tasks.

CV-58-标题 Dual-Cycle Self-Supervised Dual-View Fluorescence Microscopy Image Reconstruction using CycleGAN

Abstract: Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy often suffers from anisotropy, where the resolution along the axial direction is lower than that within the lateral imaging plane. We address this issue by presenting Dual-Cycle, a new framework for joint deconvolution and fusion of dual-view fluorescence images. Inspired by the recent Neuroclear method, Dual-Cycle is designed as a cycle-consistent generative network trained in a self-supervised fashion by combining a dual-view generator and prior-guided degradation model. We validate Dual-Cycle on both synthetic and real data showing its state-of-the-art performance without any external training data.

CV-59-标题 Deep Learning-based Anonymization of Chest Radiographs A Utility-preserving Measure for Patient Privacy

Abstract: Robust and reliable anonymization of chest radiographs constitutes an essential step before publishing large datasets of such for research purposes. The conventional anonymization process is carried out by obscuring personal information in the images with black boxes and removing or replacing meta-information. However, such simple measures retain biometric information in the chest radiographs, allowing patients to be re-identified by a linkage attack. Therefore, we see an urgent need to obfuscate the biometric information appearing in the images. To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first deep learning-based approach to targetedly anonymize chest radiographs while maintaining data utility for diagnostic and machine learning purposes. Our model architecture is a composition of three independent neural networks that, when collectively used, allow for learning a deformation field that is able to impede patient re-identification. The individual influence of each component is investigated with an ablation study. Quantitative results on the ChestX-ray14 dataset show a reduction of patient re-identification from 81.8% to 58.6% in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with little impact on the abnormality classification performance. This indicates the ability to preserve underlying abnormality patterns while increasing patient privacy. Furthermore, we compare the proposed deep learning-based anonymization approach with differentially private image pixelization, and demonstrate the superiority of our method towards resolving the privacy-utility trade-off for chest radiographs.

CV-60-标题 Segmentation-based Information Extraction and Amalgamation in Fundus Images for Glaucoma Detection

Abstract: Glaucoma is a severe blinding disease, for which automatic detection methods are urgently needed to alleviate the scarcity of ophthalmologists. Many works have proposed to employ deep learning methods that involve the segmentation of optic disc and cup for glaucoma detection, in which the segmentation process is often considered merely as an upstream sub-task. The relationship between fundus images and segmentation masks in terms of joint decision-making in glaucoma assessment is rarely explored. We propose a novel segmentation-based information extraction and amalgamation method for the task of glaucoma detection, which leverages the robustness of segmentation masks without disregarding the rich information in the original fundus images. Experimental results on both private and public datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms all models that utilize solely either fundus images or masks.

CV-61-标题 Modular Degradation Simulation and Restoration for Under-Display Camera

Abstract: Under-display camera (UDC) provides an elegant solution for full-screen smartphones. However, UDC captured images suffer from severe degradation since sensors lie under the display. Although this issue can be tackled by image restoration networks, these networks require large-scale image pairs for training. To this end, we propose a modular network dubbed MPGNet trained using the generative adversarial network (GAN) framework for simulating UDC imaging. Specifically, we note that the UDC imaging degradation process contains brightness attenuation, blurring, and noise corruption. Thus we model each degradation with a characteristic-related modular network, and all modular networks are cascaded to form the generator. Together with a pixel-wise discriminator and supervised loss, we can train the generator to simulate the UDC imaging degradation process. Furthermore, we present a Transformer-style network named DWFormer for UDC image restoration. For practical purposes, we use depth-wise convolution instead of the multi-head self-attention to aggregate local spatial information. Moreover, we propose a novel channel attention module to aggregate global information, which is critical for brightness recovery. We conduct evaluations on the UDC benchmark, and our method surpasses the previous state-of-the-art models by 1.23 dB on the P-OLED track and 0.71 dB on the T-OLED track, respectively.

CV-62-标题 Learning to screen Glaucoma like the ophthalmologists

Abstract: GAMMA Challenge is organized to encourage the AI models to screen the glaucoma from a combination of 2D fundus image and 3D optical coherence tomography volume, like the ophthalmologists.

CV-63-标题 Automated detection of Alzheimer disease using MRI images and deep neural networks- A review

Abstract: Early detection of Alzheimer disease is crucial for deploying interventions and slowing the disease progression. A lot of machine learning and deep learning algorithms have been explored in the past decade with the aim of building an automated detection for Alzheimer. Advancements in data augmentation techniques and advanced deep learning architectures have opened up new frontiers in this field, and research is moving at a rapid speed. Hence, the purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of recent research on deep learning models for Alzheimer disease diagnosis. In addition to categorizing the numerous data sources, neural network architectures, and commonly used assessment measures, we also classify implementation and reproducibility. Our objective is to assist interested researchers in keeping up with the newest developments and in reproducing earlier investigations as benchmarks. In addition, we also indicate future research directions for this topic.

CV-64-标题 Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network Built by Multiscale Atlases for Brain Disorder Diagnosis Using Functional Connectivity

Abstract: Functional connectivity network (FCN) data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used for the diagnoses of brain disorders. However, state-of-the-art studies used to build the FCN using a single brain parcellation atlas at a certain spatial scale, which largely neglected functional interactions across different spatial scales in hierarchical manners. In this study, we propose a novel framework to perform multiscale FCN analysis for brain disorder diagnosis. We first use a set of well-defined multiscale atlases to compute multiscale FCNs. Then, we utilize biologically meaningful brain hierarchical relationships among the regions in multiscale atlases to perform nodal pooling across multiple spatial scales, namely “Atlas-guided Pooling”. Accordingly, we propose a Multiscale-Atlases-based Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (MAHGCN), built on the stacked layers of graph convolution and the atlas-guided pooling, for a comprehensive extraction of diagnostic information from multiscale FCNs. Experiments on neuroimaging data from 1792 subjects demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method in the diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the prodromal stage of AD (i.e., mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), as well as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with accuracy of 88.9%, 78.6%, and 72.7% respectively. All results show significant advantages of our proposed method over other competing methods. This study not only demonstrates the feasibility of brain disorder diagnosis using resting-state fMRI empowered by deep learning, but also highlights that the functional interactions in the multiscale brain hierarchy are worth being explored and integrated into deep learning network architectures for better understanding the neuropathology of brain disorders.

CV-65-标题 A Trio-Method for Retinal Vessel Segmentation using Image Processing

Abstract: Inner Retinal neurons are a most essential part of the retina and they are supplied with blood via retinal vessels. This paper primarily focuses on the segmentation of retinal vessels using a triple preprocessing approach. DRIVE database was taken into consideration and preprocessed by Gabor Filtering, Gaussian Blur, and Edge Detection by Sobel and Pruning. Segmentation was driven out by 2 proposed U-Net architectures. Both the architectures were compared in terms of all the standard performance metrics. Preprocessing generated varied interesting results which impacted the results shown by the UNet architectures for segmentation. This real-time deployment can help in the efficient pre-processing of images with better segmentation and detection.

### 人工智能

AI-0-标题 Evaluating Agent Interactions Through Episodic Knowledge Graphs

Abstract: We present a new method based on episodic Knowledge Graphs (eKGs) for evaluating (multimodal) conversational agents in open domains. This graph is generated by interpreting raw signals during conversation and is able to capture the accumulation of knowledge over time. We apply structural and semantic analysis of the resulting graphs and translate the properties into qualitative measures. We compare these measures with existing automatic and manual evaluation metrics commonly used for conversational agents. Our results show that our Knowledge-Graph-based evaluation provides more qualitative insights into interaction and the agent’s behavior.

AI-1-标题 The "Beatrix Resurrections Robust Backdoor Detection via Gram Matrices

Abstract: Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are susceptible to backdoor attacks during training. The model corrupted in this way functions normally, but when triggered by certain patterns in the input, produces a predefined target label. Existing defenses usually rely on the assumption of the universal backdoor setting in which poisoned samples share the same uniform trigger. However, recent advanced backdoor attacks show that this assumption is no longer valid in dynamic backdoors where the triggers vary from input to input, thereby defeating the existing defenses. In this work, we propose a novel technique, Beatrix (backdoor detection via Gram matrix). Beatrix utilizes Gram matrix to capture not only the feature correlations but also the appropriately high-order information of the representations. By learning class-conditional statistics from activation patterns of normal samples, Beatrix can identify poisoned samples by capturing the anomalies in activation patterns. To further improve the performance in identifying target labels, Beatrix leverages kernel-based testing without making any prior assumptions on representation distribution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method through extensive evaluation and comparison with state-of-the-art defensive techniques. The experimental results show that our approach achieves an F1 score of 91.1% in detecting dynamic backdoors, while the state of the art can only reach 36.9%.

AI-2-标题 Rethinking Missing Data Aleatoric Uncertainty-Aware Recommendation

Abstract: Historical interactions are the default choice for recommender model training, which typically exhibit high sparsity, i.e., most user-item pairs are unobserved missing data. A standard choice is treating the missing data as negative training samples and estimating interaction likelihood between user-item pairs along with the observed interactions. In this way, some potential interactions are inevitably mislabeled during training, which will hurt the model fidelity, hindering the model to recall the mislabeled items, especially the long-tail ones. In this work, we investigate the mislabeling issue from a new perspective of aleatoric uncertainty, which describes the inherent randomness of missing data. The randomness pushes us to go beyond merely the interaction likelihood and embrace aleatoric uncertainty modeling. Towards this end, we propose a new Aleatoric Uncertainty-aware Recommendation (AUR) framework that consists of a new uncertainty estimator along with a normal recommender model. According to the theory of aleatoric uncertainty, we derive a new recommendation objective to learn the estimator. As the chance of mislabeling reflects the potential of a pair, AUR makes recommendations according to the uncertainty, which is demonstrated to improve the recommendation performance of less popular items without sacrificing the overall performance. We instantiate AUR on three representative recommender models: Matrix Factorization (MF), LightGCN, and VAE from mainstream model architectures. Extensive results on two real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of AUR w.r.t. better recommendation results, especially on long-tail items.

AI-3-标题 The SpeakIn Speaker Verification System for Far-Field Speaker Verification Challenge 2022

AI-4-标题 involve-MI Informative Planning with High-Dimensional Non-Parametric Beliefs

Abstract: One of the most complex tasks of decision making and planning is to gather information. This task becomes even more complex when the state is high-dimensional and its belief cannot be expressed with a parametric distribution. Although the state is high-dimensional, in many problems only a small fraction of it might be involved in transitioning the state and generating observations. We exploit this fact to calculate an information-theoretic expected reward, mutual information (MI), over a much lower-dimensional subset of the state, to improve efficiency and without sacrificing accuracy. A similar approach was used in previous works, yet specifically for Gaussian distributions, and we here extend it for general distributions. Moreover, we apply the dimensionality reduction for cases in which the new states are augmented to the previous, yet again without sacrificing accuracy. We then continue by developing an estimator for the MI which works in a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) manner, and avoids the reconstruction of future belief’s surfaces. Finally, we show how this work is applied to the informative planning optimization problem. This work is then evaluated in a simulation of an active SLAM problem, where the improvement in both accuracy and timing is demonstrated.